working in the fields on fine days and reading books on rainy days




(to do)

  • Both our bodies started to spin around.
  • To know her is to love her.
  • His dream is to become an actor.
  • It gave me the change to enjoy a variety of space foods.
  • I feel so lucky to have a beautiful home planet.
  • You have to use a straw to eat soup.
  • I have decided not to eat too much before the test.(否定)


不定詞の意味上の主語を for ~ で表す。

  • I waited for a miracle to happen.
  • Here is a new DVD for you to watch.
  • The man made room for her to enter.



  • Eating without the help of gravity is a problem.
  • My hobby is watching stars.
  • I like traveling alone.
  • You don’t have to worry about hurting your back.


  • He remembers his family's eating only one meal a day.
  • He remembers his family eating only one meal a day.
  • Do you mind my asking a question?
  • Do you mind me asking a question?
  • She doesn't care about John's forgetting to pay.
  • She doesn't care about John forgetting to pay.


(have pp)

  • Have you finished your homework yet?
  • They have lived in Japan for 20 years.
  • My grandfather has been to New York eight times.


(had pp)

  • He had never played with a full orchestra before coming to New York.
  • She had lived in London for 10 years before she came back to Japan.


(have/has/had_been pp)

  • Her story has been told for many years.
  • Has the map of the old city been completed yet?

助動詞 + have + 過去分詞「〜だったかもしれない」「〜できただろうに」

現在から見た過去の時点の推量・可能性・能力 (could/would/should have pp)

  • Since millions of fans predicted World Cup games, there could have been thousands who made eight correct predictions.
  • No one would have thought that they were old people.
  • You could have come with us if you had arrived earlier.
  • I should have studied hard for the exam, but I didn't.


could < might < may < can < should < ought to < would < will < must


(who, whose, whom, which, that)

  • The story is about a Chinese student who moves to Japan.
  • She is the writer whose novel won the prize.
  • These are the writers whom [that] I like best.
  • She wrote a novel which [that] was based on an old Japanese story.
  • Persian is one of the languages which [that] people in Iran speak.


関係代名詞における「wh節+be動詞」を省略するルールに等しい。 (-ing/pp)

  • I talked to him working at bicycle-parking places.
  • My daughter is a university student studying engineering.
  • Tawada has won a prize given to foreign writers who contribute to German culture.

関係代名詞 what (~= the thing which)

  • He listens to a tape recorded for him and remembers what he hears.
  • What is important is to put your heart into your music.
  • This is what I want you to do.


(where, when, why, how)

  • I lived in a place where there were many day laborers.
  • Do you know the year when that NPO started?
  • He tries to tell us the reason why trust is important.
  • We are surprised to see how they are running their NPO.


  • They had a daughter, who went to Europe to study music.
  • Their house, which burned down last year, has been built again.


  • Let's go to Hokkaido in June, when the weather is beautiful.
  • The hotel, where they stayed for the night, was near the ocean.

前置詞 + 関係代名詞

前置詞は、関係代名詞の前または関係代名詞が導く節の後ろに置かれる。 目的格の用法で、前置詞が倒置されているときの関係代名詞は省略。

  • Paul was given two boxes in which there were mussels.
  • Bob is the boy with whom I go to school every day.
  • She is the scientist (whom) I talked about yesterday.
  • This is the movie (which [that]) I'm planning to go to.


付帯状況、時、理由 (-ing)

  • You did a lot of fieldwork, observing chimpanzees in the wild.
  • I was reading a book on the train, listening to music.
  • Walking out of the door, I felt the first drops of rain.
  • Feeling tried, I went to bed earlier than usual.



  • Forced to take another job, maybe I would like to be a taxi driver for a day.
  • Told to be quiet, he got very angry.
  • Not having enough time to think deeply, you don't even know what your next move will be until you place your hand on the piece.
  • Not knowing what to say, she didn't say anything at all.



  • How would you feel if these were photos of your own family?
  • If I knew her number, I would phone her.
  • I wish I were there with you.
  • She is crying as if she were a little baby.


  • If he had lived one day longer, he would have seen it in print.
  • I could have gone skiing if I had not been tired.
  • If I had had enough money, I would have bought a better computer.
  • If he had not spend so much time on the Web, he might not have failed the exam.


  • Everyone wonders when the new park will open.
  • I don’t know if he finished his journey safely.


  • It is very important that you watch them and observe their behavior.
  • It is a surprise that she knew the answer.
  • It is natural that his mother was excited about the result.
  • It is possible that he will win the medal.


  • It is well known that Germans love soccer.
  • It is believed that if you wash your money in this pond, you will get rich.
  • It is reported that the road was closed because of the heavy snow.


主語には、problem, fact, reason などがくる。

  • The problem was that her mother tongue, Persian, bones not use Chinese characters.
  • The fact is that the earth looks like an oasis in space.
  • The reason for her success is that she enjoys the challenges.


(hear/see/make/have/let A do)

  • He heard his mother sing "Jingle Bells."
    • 彼は母親がジングルベルを歌うのを聞いた。
  • I saw a lot of people enter the concert hall.
  • The Davidsons did their best to make them feel at home.
  • The teacher had his students help him with the work.
  • The teacher let us go home early.


(see/hear/feel/want/find -ing/pp)

  • I often saw them sleeping on the streets.
    • 彼らが道で寝ているのをしばしば見る
  • We heard somebody playing the piano in the music room.
  • They wanted the wall painted white.
  • He found himself left alone in the forest.
    • 道に一人で置いていかれたことに気づいた


(keep/come/get/remain -ing/pp)

  • I kept working in a Japanese company.
    • 私は日本企業で働き続けた。
  • My two-year-old daughter came running to me.
  • He got caught by the police.
  • Please remain seated at your desk.
    • あなたのデスクに座ったままでいてください


  • The photos will show you what people went through in the 20th century.
  • The TV program will tell you how he became a famous actor.
  • She didn't tell her family when she would come back.

S+V+O (O=whether節)「〜かどうかを〜する」

  • A group of shogi players were discussing whether or not you could predict what the game would be like 10 moves from now.
  • I don't know whether he has completed his journey safely.
  • I wonder whether she loved him.


  • We humans must understand that wild animals have the right to live.
  • The fact that he is blind means nothing when it comes to playing the piano.(that節)
  • I have no idea what will happen to us.(wh節)
  • He has a dream of becoming a researcher.(of+動名詞)

seem to; it seems that「のように思える」

  • Everything seemed to be lost.
  • He seems to be a real adventurer.
  • It seemed that earthquakes had caused many changes in the seabed.
  • It seems that no other archaeologist is as professional as Franch Goddio.

形式目的語 it「だとわかる・だと思う」

S+V+O+Cで、目的語Oにto不定詞、that節、when節/if節 などがくるとき、Oの位置に形式目的語itを置く

  • They found it very difficult to dive in the muddy water of the bay.
  • I think it strange that all the records of Cleopatra have been lost.
  • I liked it better when we didn't have so much homework.

付帯状況の with「のままにして」

(with n adj/participle/prep_phrase)

  • We saw a boy playing with his little brother on his back.
  • She was listening to my story with her eyes closed.
  • She always washes the dishes with the water running.


(not all/every/always/both)

  • The changes are not always bad.
  • Not all of my students understand my class.
  • No every canoe is made from a log.

used to, would「よく〜したものだ」

  • The Aleut used to make kayaks.
  • We don't see anything now, but there used to be a beautiful castle here.
  • I couldn't do anything because my computer would not work.
  • I would rather stay home and read a book.(むしろ〜したい)


(aux be pp)

  • Its library books would be replaced with computers.
  • In clear weather, Mt. Fuji can be seen from Shinjuku.
  • The wild area must not be destroyed.
  • Should this cake be eaten by the end of this week?

no matter + 疑問詞「どんなに〜であっても」

  • No matter how busy his father is, he always has time to give him a big smile.
  • No matter where you go, you can use the Internet.
  • No matter what you say to me, I won't go with you tomorrow.
  • No matter who your friends are, your father will welcome them.

be to 不定詞「することになっている」「しなければならない」


  • The farewell cartoon was to appear some six weeks later.(予定)
  • He was never to return home after he went abroad.(運命)
  • You are to write a report by Monday.(義務・命令)