Network Working Group                                        N. Earnshaw
Request for Comments: 4078                  BBC Research and Development
Category: Informational                                          S. Aoki
                                                    TokyoFM Broadcasting
                                                               A. Ashley
                                                             NDS Limited
                                                             W. Kameyama
                                                 GITS, Waseda University
                                                                May 2005
           The TV-Anytime Content Reference Identifier (CRID)

Status of This Memo


This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


Copyright Notice


Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).




The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) scheme "CRID:" has been devised to allow references to current or future scheduled publications of broadcast media content over television distribution platforms and the Internet.


The initial intended application is as an embedded link within scheduled programme description metadata that can be used by the home user or agent to associate a programme selection with the corresponding programme location information for subsequent automatic acquisition.


This document reproduces the TV-Anytime CRID definition found in the TV-Anytime content referencing specification, and is published as an RFC for ease of access and registration with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

この文書では、仕様を参照したTV-Anytimeコンテンツで見つかったTV-Anytime CRID定義を再生し、IANA(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)にしてアクセスし、登録を容易にするためにRFCとして公開されています。

Table of Contents


   1. Introduction ....................................................2
   2. Ancestry ........................................................3
   3. Notation Used in This Document ..................................3
   4. The CRID URL Scheme .............................................3
   5. Examples of CRID Syntax .........................................4
   6. Usage ...........................................................4
      6.1. Normative Specification ....................................4
      6.2. Role of Domain Name System (DNS) Namespace .................5
      6.3. CRID Resolving .............................................5
      6.4. CRID Related Metadata ......................................5
   7. IANA Considerations .............................................6
      7.1. General ....................................................6
      7.2. Registration Template in Accordance with RFC 2717 ..........6
   8. Security Considerations .........................................7
   9. Acknowledgements ................................................7
   10. References .....................................................8
       10.1. Normative References .....................................8
       10.2. Informative References ...................................8
1. Introduction
1. はじめに

In recent years there has been an expansion in the number of broadcast television and radio services available to the home. In addition to the broadcast services delivered over traditional distribution channels such as Digital Terrestrial, Satellite and Cable, the advent of high-speed Internet connection will give rise to even more information and entertainment services, providing audio-visual programme material sourced directly to the home over the Internet.


Alongside this expansion there has also been increased growth in complexity of devices available to the home user, which will allow the user to operate in a 'search-select-acquire' paradigm. In this model, the user or user agent uses descriptive information about audio visual programmes as a basis for selecting the programme for subsequent acquisition and viewing. Increasingly, home appliances are being furnished with local storage, enabling the automatic capture of programme material through off-air recording or downloading by a home appliance.


The 'CRID:' Uniform Resource Locator is designed to be the bridge between programme-related descriptive metadata and corresponding programme location data that may be published over a different distribution network or at a different time.


Programme location data provides the home user agent with the information required to acquire the programme at the time of publication. In the case of the television distribution model, these locators provide programme broadcast timing and tuning information so that the user appliance can record the programme when it is broadcast in real time. In the case of Internet delivery, the locators have to be of the form associated with streaming protocols or file exchange protocols with the time (or time window) of availability indicated.


Because a content publisher may release audio-video material in the same form on a number of platforms or repeatedly over some time interval, the CRID can be used to aggregate these different publications and associate them with a single description. Furthermore, there may be other meaningful semantic associations between otherwise unrelated programme publications with assigned CRID that can be further aggregated under a higher-level CRID. This higher-level CRID can be described through its own descriptive metadata. The subjective nature of these aggregation decisions is part of the CRID authoring process and is not standardised.


The CRID resolution process ultimately enabling the user agent to acquire audio-visual programme material may be a timely process, with resolution updates delivered dynamically from the service provider. This is to reflect common business practice of adjusting the time of content availability close to the original published time to accommodate a live, managed, reactive broadcast service.


2. Ancestry

The Uniform Resource Locator scheme 'CRID:' is taken from the TV-Anytime forum Content Reference Identifier and is a result of the consensus reached by members of this forum between March 2000 and June 2002. The TV-Anytime CRID and associated supporting data is specified in the TV-Anytime Phase 1 Content Referencing Specification [TVA-CR].

ユニフォームリソースロケータスキーム「CRID:」たTV-Anytimeフォーラムのコンテンツ参照識別子から取られ、2000年3月と2002年6月の間に、このフォーラムのメンバーが到達したコンセンサスたTV-Anytime CRIDと関連する支援データの結果がされたTV-Anytimeフェーズ1コンテンツの参照仕様[TVA-CR]で指定されました。

3. Notation Used in This Document

The notation used in this document takes the form



<第一> / <第二>

in which the component names are in angle brackets and any characters outside angle brackets are literal separators.


4. The CRID URL Scheme
4. CRIDのURLスキーム

The CRID URL takes the form


crid://<DNS name>/<data>

CRID:// <DNS名> / <データ>

in which <DNS name> is a registered Internet domain name that takes the form of domain name described in Section 3 of [RFC1034] and Section 2.1 of [RFC1123].

ここで<DNS名> [RFC1034]及び[RFC1123]のセクション2.1のセクション3に記載されたドメイン名の形をとる登録インターネットドメイン名です。

<data> is a free format string that is URI [RFC3986] compliant, and that is meaningful to the authority given by the authority field. The portion of the field is case insensitive. It is recommended that all characters not within the range of characters allowed in a URI must be encoded into UTF-8 and included in the URI as a sequence of escaped octets. An escaped octet is encoded as a character triplet, consisting of the percent character, "%", followed by the two hexadecimal digits representing the octet code.

<データ>はURI [RFC3986]に準拠しており、それは権威フィールドによって与えられた権限に意味のある自由形式の文字列です。フィールドの部分は大文字と小文字を区別しないです。 URIに使用できる文字の範囲内のすべての文字はないが、UTF-8にエンコードし、エスケープオクテットのシーケンスとしてURIに含まれなければならないことをお勧めします。エスケープオクテットは、オクテットコードを表す2桁の16進数が続くパーセント文字、「%」、からなる文字トリプレットとして符号化されます。

In its entirety, the CRID is URI compliant as specified in [RFC3986]. As per [RFC3986], the crid:// part of the syntax is case insensitive.

その全体が、CRIDは、[RFC3986]で指定されたURIに準拠しています。 [RFC3986]あたりとして、CRID:構文の//の部分は大文字と小文字を区別しません。

5. Examples of CRID Syntax

The following are examples of a valid CRID:




The above CRID was created by "" authority, with data part of foobar:




The above CRID was created by "" authority, with a data part of "E", "I", and "GA" (meaning "movie"), represented as KATAKANA LETTERS (Japanese characters) in UTF-8 encoding preceded by "%".


6. Usage
6.1. Normative Specification
6.1. 規範的仕様

The Uniform Resource Locator scheme 'CRID:' identifies the URL as the TV-Anytime Content Reference Identifier and conforms to the TV-Anytime Content Referencing Specification [TVA-CR]. The TV-Anytime CRID is a key component in the TV-Anytime forum specification series as described in the informative overview Systems Description Specification [TVA-Sys]. The normative Content Referencing Specification [TVA-CR] also includes the details of the contents and

ユニフォームリソースロケータスキーム「CRIDは:」たTV-Anytimeコンテンツ参照識別子としてURLを識別したTV-Anytimeコンテンツの参照仕様[TVA-CR]に準拠しています。たTV-Anytime CRID有益な概要Systems詳細仕様[TVA-SYS]に記載されたTV-Anytimeフォーラム仕様シリーズの重要なコンポーネントです。規範的なコンテンツの参照仕様[TVA-CR]はまた、コンテンツの内容を含み、

format of the associated content referencing tables that resolve the TV-Anytime CRID into further CRID instances or transport system-dependent locations.

さらにCRIDインスタンスまたは輸送システムに依存場所にたTV-Anytime CRIDを解決テーブルを参照する関連付けられたコンテンツのフォーマット。

6.2. Role of Domain Name System (DNS) Namespace
6.2. ドメインネームシステム(DNS)名前空間の役割

Note that the use of the registered Internet Domain does not mean that the DNS resolving service is to be employed for the resolution of CRID URL. Indeed the resolution information is fully specified in [TVA-CR] and does not require the use of the DNS resolution service. This is especially important as one key application area is broadcast television and radio distribution services that are not Internet based.

登録されたインターネットドメインの使用は、DNS解決サービスがCRID URLの解決のために使用されることを意味しないことに注意してください。実際に解像度情報が完全[TVA-CR]で指定され、DNS解決サービスの使用を必要としません。 1つの主要なアプリケーション領域は、インターネットベースではありませんテレビやラジオの配信サービスを放送しているので、これは特に重要です。

In business scenarios that exploit Internet connectivity to the home, the DNS portion of the CRID can be used to resolve the Internet location of the service provider, who in turn will provide location resolution information in a form described in [TVA-CR].


6.3. CRID Resolving
6.3. CRID解決

As addressed in [TVA-CR], the CRID is ultimately resolved either directly by the CRID authority or by another party. If another party is providing resolution, the ability to resolve the CRID requires the flow of some information from the authority to the resolution provider, in order to tie the CRID to its resolution. Examples of relationships between CRID authors and the suppliers of resolution information are given in [TVA-Sys].

[TVA-CR]で対処として、CRIDは、最終的に直接CRID権限または別の当事者のいずれかによって解決されます。他の当事者は、解像度を提供している場合は、CRIDを解決する能力は、その解像度にCRIDを結びつけるためには、解像度プロバイダへの権限からいくつかの情報の流れを必要とします。 CRIDの著者と解像度情報の供給者との間の関係の例は、[TVA-SYS]に記載されています。

As described in [TVA-CR], there will in all likelihood be more than one CRID that can resolve directly or indirectly to a given single locator at a given time.


Also shown in [TVA-CR], CRIDs that resolve directly to the location of the scheduled content are likely to resolve to more than one location, as television and radio programmes are often published repeatedly within broadcast schedules or across different broadcast services or distribution platforms over an extended period of time.


6.4. CRID Related Metadata
6.4. CRIDに関するメタデータ

TV-Anytime specification [TVA-Met] specifies the format and contents of the programme-related descriptive metadata designed to convey the TV-Anytime CRID for the purpose outlined here, as well as that of other data supporting the publication and usage of programme material.

たTV-Anytime仕様[TVA-Metは】番組関連記述ここで概説目的たTV-Anytime CRIDを搬送するように設計されたメタデータ、並びにプログラム材料の出版および使用をサポートする他のデータの形式と内容を特定します。

7. IANA Considerations
7. IANAの考慮事項
7.1. General
7.1. 一般的な

The 'crid:' URI scheme is reserved to designate that the URI relates to the TV-Anytime CRID and is to be used in accordance with the TV-Anytime Content Referencing Specification [TVA-CR].

「CRID:」URIスキームはURIがたTV-Anytime CRIDに関したTV-Anytimeコンテンツの参照仕様[TVA-CR]に従って使用されることを指定するために予約されています。

The designation of the value of each CRID is the responsibility of the CRID author, as identified through the 'authority' field.


The policy of assignment of CRID values lies with the CRID author associated with the authority field. It is likely that there will be a number of diverse (and possibly changing) authoring policies as required by various organisations as they address their respective audiences. These individual policies will address resolution target resource designation issues such as the subjective equivalence of programme material available from different locations, the grouping of CRIDs under another CRID for collective description and resolution purposes, the cross referencing of CRID between authorities, CRID lifetime, and CRID reuse.


It is likely that some authoring policies may be set through collaborative business arrangements, localised operational agreements, or national governmental bodies.


7.2. Registration Template in Accordance with []
7.2. []に従って登録テンプレート

URL scheme name: crid


URL scheme syntax: See Section 4


Character encoding considerations: TV-Anytime does not specify the character encoding scheme to be adopted by each implementation. However, in the case where Internet interoperability is desired, it is recommended that all characters not within the range of characters allowed in a URI must be encoded into UTF-8 and included in the URI as a sequence of escaped octets. An escaped octet is encoded as a character triplet, consisting of the percent character, "%", followed by the two hexadecimal digits representing the octet code. For example, the character A would be represented as "A", the character LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE would be represented as "%C3%80", and the character KATAKANA LETTER A would be represented as "%E3%82%A2".

文字エンコーディングの考慮事項:たTV-Anytimeは、各実装によって採択される文字符号化方式を指定していません。しかし、インターネットの相互運用性が要求される場合には、ないURIに使用できる文字の範囲内のすべての文字がUTF-8にエンコードし、エスケープオクテットのシーケンスとしてURIに含まれなければならないことをお勧めします。エスケープオクテットは、オクテットコードを表す2桁の16進数が続くパーセント文字、「%」、からなる文字トリプレットとして符号化されます。例えば、文字Aは「A」と表記される、グレーブ付き文字ラテン大文字Aは、「%のC3%80」として表現される、文字カタカナLETTER Aは%E3の%82%A2」として表現されます」。

Intended Use: See Section 6


Application and protocols which use this scheme: See Section 6


Interoperability considerations: None (Section 4 contains the first version of the CRID URL definition)


Security considerations: See Section 8


Relevant publications: See [TVA-CR], [TVA-Met], [TVA-Sys], [TVA-Prt]


Contact: Wataru KAMEYAMA, Vice Chairman and Secretary of the TV-Anytime Forum,


Author/Change controller: IESG


8. Security Considerations

The CRID URL described here provides a referencing mechanism. The values of the URL contain the authoring 'Authority' name as a DNS namespace identifier and a data portion to distinguish it from other CRIDs from the same authority. There should be no reason to prevent disclosure of the values within the CRID and no commercial sensitivity associated with these values.

ここで説明するCRIDのURLを参照メカニズムを提供します。 URLの値は、DNS名前空間識別子と同じ機関から他のCRIDからそれを区別するためのデータ部分としてオーサリング「権威」の名前が含まれています。 CRIDと、これらの値に関連付けられていない商業の感度内の値の開示を防止するための理由はありません。

When the binding conveyed as part of a larger data set which may have commercial value or critical binding between a CRID and the accompanying data, the security and integrity of the binding is a matter for the wider system implementers to judge and protect accordingly. One such method for protecting metadata can be found in [TVA-Prt], though it is not mandated that users adopt this. In any case, there may be other, wider system security functions in place or such precautions may not be seen as necessary.


Tampering with values of CRIDs during transmission or distribution over public or open networks has only nuisance or denial-of-service effects unless it causes alternative location resolution data or programme metadata to be referenced. Again, this can be dealt with as a system delivery of data integrity issue not specific to the CRID.


Impersonating a CRID authority by authoring CRID with an authority portion for which the bogus author does not have permission from the registered DNS name holder would be a misuse of the DNS name holder's identity and should be dealt with through normal business practice.


9. Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the members of the TV-Anytime forum and their work in the development of the TV-Anytime CRID.

著者は、たTV-AnytimeフォーラムのメンバーのサポートとたTV-Anytime CRIDの開発で自分の仕事を認めたいと思います。

10. References
10.1. Normative References
10.1. 引用規格

[TVA-CR] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, "ETSI TS 102 822-4 v1.1.2 ; Broadcast and On-line Services: Search, select and rightful use of content on personal storage systems ("TV-Anytime Phase 1"); Part 4: Content referencing", October 2004.

[TVA-CR]欧州電気通信標準化協会、「ETSI TS 102 822から4 v1.1.2デベロッパー、放送およびオンラインサービス:検索、個人的なストレージ・システム上のコンテンツの選択と正当な使用(」たTV-Anytimeフェーズ1" );パート4:コンテンツ参照」、2004年10月。

[RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", RFC 1034, November 1987.

[RFC1034] Mockapetris、P.、 "ドメイン名 - 概念と施設"、RFC 1034、1987年11月。

[RFC1123] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support", RFC 1123, October 1989.

[RFC1123]ブレーデン、R.、 "インターネットホストのための要件 - 、アプリケーションとサポート"、RFC 1123、1989年10月。

[RFC2717] Petke, R. and I. King, "Registration Procedures for URL Scheme Names", RFC 2717, November 1999.

[RFC2717] Petke、R.とI.キング、RFC 2717、1999年11月 "URLスキーム名の登録手順"。

[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005.

[RFC3986]バーナーズ - リー、T.、フィールディング、R.、およびL. Masinter、 "ユニフォームリソース識別子(URI):汎用構文"、STD 66、RFC 3986、2005年1月。

10.2. Informative References
10.2. 参考文献

[TVA-Sys] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, "ETSI TS 102 822-2 v1.2.1 ; Broadcast and On-line Services: Search, select and rightful use of content on personal storage systems ("TV-Anytime Phase 1"). Part 2 System Description", September 2004.

[TVA-SYS]欧州電気通信標準化協会、「ETSI TS 102 822から2 V1.2.1、放送およびオンラインサービス:検索、個人的なストレージ・システム上のコンテンツの選択と正当な使用(」たTV-Anytimeフェーズ1" )。パート2システムの説明」、2004年9月。

[TVA-Met] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, "ETSI TS 102 822-3-1 v1.2.1 ; Broadcast and On-line Services: Search, select and rightful use of content on personal storage systems ("TV-Anytime Phase 1"). Part 3 Metadata. Sub-part 1: Metadata Schemas", September 2004.

[TVA-Metと]欧州電気通信標準化協会、「ETSI TS 102 822-3-1 V1.2.1、放送およびオンラインサービス:検索、個人的なストレージ・システム上のコンテンツの選択と正当な使用(」たTV-Anytimeフェーズ1" )パート3のメタデータサブパート1:メタデータスキーマ」、2004年9月。

[TVA-Prt] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, "ETSI TS 102 822-7 v1.1.1 ; Broadcast and On-line Services: Search, select and rightful use of content on personal storage systems ("TV-Anytime Phase 1"). Part 7 Bi-directional Metadata Delivery Protection", October 2003.

[TVA-Prtを]欧州電気通信標準化協会、「ETSI TS 102 822から7 V1.1.1、放送およびオンラインサービス:検索、個人的なストレージ・システム上のコンテンツの選択と正当な使用(」たTV-Anytimeフェーズ1" )。パート7双方向メタデータ配信の保護」、2003年10月。

Authors' Addresses


Nigel Earnshaw BBC Research and Development Kingswood Warren Tadworth, Surrey KT20 6NP United Kingdom

ナイジェル・アーンショーBBCの研究開発キングスウッドウォーレンTadworth、サリーKT20 6NPイギリス

Phone: +44 1737 839618 EMail:

電話:+44 1737 839618 Eメール

Shigeru Aoki TokyoFM Broadcasting 1-7 Kojimachi Chiyoda-ku, TOKYO 102-8080 JAPAN

しげる あおき ときょFM Bろあdかsちんg 1ー7 こじまち ちよだーく、 ときょ 102ー8080 じゃぱん

Phone: +81 3 3221 0244 EMail:

電話:+81 3 3221 0244 Eメール

Alex Ashley NDS Limited One London Road Staines, Middlesex TW18 4EX United Kingdom

アレックス・アシュリーNDS限定ワンロンドンの道ステーンズ、ミドルセックスTW18 4EXイギリス

Phone: +44 208 4768270 EMail:

電話:+44 208 4768270 Eメール

Wataru Kameyama GITS, Waseda University 1011 Okuboyama, Nishi-tomida Honjo-shi, SAITAMA 367-0035 JAPAN

わたる かめやま ぎTS、 わせだ うにゔぇrしty 1011 おくぼやま、 にしーとみだ ほんじょーし、 さいたま 367ー0035 じゃぱん

Phone: +81 495 24 6052 EMail:

電話:+81 495 24 6052 Eメール

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