Network Working Group                                       R. Moskowitz
Request for Comments: 4423     ICSA Labs, a division of Cybertrust, Inc.
Category: Informational                                      P. Nikander
                                           Ericsson Research Nomadic Lab
                                                                May 2006
               Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Architecture

Status of This Memo


This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


Copyright Notice


Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).




This memo describes a snapshot of the reasoning behind a proposed new namespace, the Host Identity namespace, and a new protocol layer, the Host Identity Protocol (HIP), between the internetworking and transport layers. Herein are presented the basics of the current namespaces, their strengths and weaknesses, and how a new namespace will add completeness to them. The roles of this new namespace in the protocols are defined. The memo describes the thinking of the authors as of Fall 2003. The architecture may have evolved since. This document represents one stable point in that evolution of understanding.


Table of Contents


   1. Disclaimer ......................................................2
   2. Introduction ....................................................2
   3. Terminology .....................................................4
      3.1. Terms Common to Other Documents ............................4
      3.2. Terms Specific to This and Other HIP Documents .............4
   4. Background ......................................................6
      4.1. A Desire for a Namespace for Computing Platforms ...........6
   5. Host Identity Namespace .........................................8
      5.1. Host Identifiers ...........................................9
      5.2. Storing Host Identifiers in DNS ............................9
      5.3. Host Identity Tag (HIT) ...................................10
      5.4. Local Scope Identifier (LSI) ..............................10
   6. New Stack Architecture .........................................11
      6.1. Transport Associations and End-points .....................11
   7. End-host Mobility and Multi-homing .............................12
      7.1. Rendezvous Mechanism ......................................13
      7.2. Protection against Flooding Attacks .......................13
   8. HIP and IPsec ..................................................14
   9. HIP and NATs ...................................................15
      9.1. HIP and TCP Checksums .....................................15
   10. Multicast .....................................................16
   11. HIP Policies ..................................................16
   12. Benefits of HIP ...............................................16
      12.1. HIP's Answers to NSRG Questions ..........................17
   13. Security Considerations .......................................19
      13.1. HITs Used in ACLs ........................................21
      13.2. Non-security considerations ..............................21
   14. Acknowledgements ..............................................22
   15. Informative References ........................................22
1. Disclaimer

The purpose of this memo is to provide a stable reference point in the development of the Host Identity Protocol architecture. This memo describes the thinking of the authors as of Fall 2003; their thinking may have evolved since then. Occasionally, this memo may be confusing or self-contradicting. That is (partially) intentional, and it reflects the snapshot nature of this memo.


This RFC is not a candidate for any level of Internet Standard. The IETF disclaims any knowledge of the fitness of this RFC for any purpose and notes that the decision to publish is not based on IETF review. However, the ideas put forth in this RFC have generated significant interest, including the formation of the IETF HIP Working Group and the IRTF HIP Research Group. These groups are expected to generate further documents, sharing their findings with the whole Internet community.

このRFCはインターネットStandardのどんなレベルの候補ではありません。 IETFは、いかなる目的のために、このRFCのフィットネスの知識を否認し、公開する決定はIETFレビューに基づいていないことを指摘しています。しかし、このRFCに出すアイデアは、IETF HIPワーキンググループとIRTFのHIP研究グループの形成を含め、大きな関心を生成しています。これらのグループは、全体のインターネットコミュニティとの調査結果を共有し、さらにドキュメントを生成することが期待されています。

2. Introduction

The Internet has two important global namespaces: Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and Domain Name Service (DNS) names. These two namespaces have a set of features and abstractions that have powered the Internet to what it is today. They also have a number of weaknesses. Basically, since they are all we have, we try to do too much with them. Semantic overloading and functionality extensions have greatly complicated these namespaces.


The proposed Host Identity namespace fills an important gap between the IP and DNS namespaces. The Host Identity namespace consists of Host Identifiers (HIs). A Host Identifier is cryptographic in its nature; it is the public key of an asymmetric key-pair. Each host will have at least one Host Identity, but it will typically have more than one. Each Host Identity uniquely identifies a single host; i.e., no two hosts have the same Host Identity. The Host Identity, and the corresponding Host Identifier, can be either public (e.g., published in the DNS) or unpublished. Client systems will tend to have both public and unpublished Identities.


There is a subtle but important difference between Host Identities and Host Identifiers. An Identity refers to the abstract entity that is identified. An Identifier, on the other hand, refers to the concrete bit pattern that is used in the identification process.


Although the Host Identifiers could be used in many authentication systems, such as the Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol [9], the presented architecture introduces a new protocol, called the Host Identity Protocol (HIP), and a cryptographic exchange, called the HIP base exchange; see also Section 8. The HIP protocols provide for limited forms of trust between systems, enhance mobility, multi-homing, and dynamic IP renumbering; aid in protocol translation/transition; and reduce certain types of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.


When HIP is used, the actual payload traffic between two HIP hosts is typically, but not necessarily, protected with IPsec. The Host Identities are used to create the needed IPsec Security Associations (SAs) and to authenticate the hosts. When IPsec is used, the actual payload IP packets do not differ in any way from standard IPsec-protected IP packets.

HIPが使用される場合、2台のHIPホストとの間の実際のペイロードトラフィックは、典型的には、必ずしも、IPsecで保護されていません。ホストのアイデンティティが必要IPsecセキュリティアソシエーション(SA)を作成し、ホストを認証するために使用されています。 IPsecは使用されている場合は、実際のペイロードのIPパケットは、標準IPsecで保護されたIPパケットから、どのような方法で違いはありません。

3. Terminology
3.1. Terms Common to Other Documents
3.1. 他のドキュメントへの一般的な利用規約
   | Term         | Explanation                                        |
   | public key   | The public key of an asymmetric cryptographic key  |
   |              | pair.  Used as a publicly known identifier for     |
   |              | cryptographic identity authentication.             |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Private key  | The private or secret key of an asymmetric         |
   |              | cryptographic key pair.  Assumed to be known only  |
   |              | to the party identified by the corresponding       |
   |              | public key. Used by the identified party to        |
   |              | authenticate its identity to other parties.        |
   |              |                                                    |
   | public key   | An asymmetric cryptographic key pair consisting of |
   | pair         | public and private keys.  For example,             |
   |              | Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) and Digital Signature  |
   |              | Algorithm (DSA) key pairs are such key pairs.      |
   |              |                                                    |
   | end-point    | A communicating entity.  For historical reasons,   |
   |              | the term 'computing platform' is used in this      |
   |              | document as a (rough) synonym for end-point.       |
3.2. Terms Specific to This and Other HIP Documents
3.2. これに特有の用語やその他のHIPドキュメント

It should be noted that many of the terms defined herein are tautologous, self-referential, or defined through circular reference to other terms. This is due to the succinct nature of the definitions. See the text elsewhere in this document for more elaborate explanations.


   | Term         | Explanation                                        |
   | computing    | An entity capable of communicating and computing,  |
   | platform     | for example, a computer.  See the definition of    |
   |              | 'end-point', above.                                |
   |              |                                                    |
   | HIP base     | A cryptographic protocol; see also Section 8.      |
   | exchange     |                                                    |
   |              |                                                    |
   | HIP packet   | An IP packet that carries a 'Host Identity         |
   |              | Protocol' message.                                 |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Host         | An abstract concept assigned to a 'computing       |
   | Identity     | platform'.  See 'Host Identifier', below.          |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Host         | A namespace formed by all possible Host            |
   | Identity     | Identifiers.                                       |
   | namespace    |                                                    |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Host         | A protocol used to carry and authenticate Host     |
   | Identity     | Identifiers and other information.                 |
   | Protocol     |                                                    |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Host         | A 128-bit datum created by taking a cryptographic  |
   | Identity Tag | hash over a Host Identifier.                       |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Host         | A public key used as a name for a Host Identity.   |
   | Identifier   |                                                    |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Local Scope  | A 32-bit datum denoting a Host Identity.           |
   | Identifier   |                                                    |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Public Host  | A published or publicly known Host Identifier used |
   | Identifier   | as a public name for a Host Identity, and the      |
   | and Identity | corresponding Identity.                            |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Unpublished  | A Host Identifier that is not placed in any public |
   | Host         | directory, and the corresponding Host Identity.    |
   | Identifier   | Unpublished Host Identities are typically          |
   | and Identity | shortlived in nature, being often replaced and     |
   |              | possibly used just once.                           |
   |              |                                                    |
   | Rendezvous   | A mechanism used to locate mobile hosts based on   |
   | Mechanism    | their Host Identity Tag (HIT).                    |
4. Background

The Internet is built from three principal components: computing platforms (end-points), packet transport (i.e., internetworking) infrastructure, and services (applications). The Internet exists to service two principal components: people and robotic services (silicon-based people, if you will). All these components need to be named in order to interact in a scalable manner. Here we concentrate on naming computing platforms and packet transport elements.


There are two principal namespaces in use in the Internet for these components: IP numbers and Domain Names. Domain Names provide hierarchically assigned names for some computing platforms and some services. Each hierarchy is delegated from the level above; there is no anonymity in Domain Names. Email, HTTP, and SIP addresses all reference Domain Names.


IP numbers are a confounding of two namespaces, the names of a host's networking interfaces and the names of the locations ('confounding' is a term used in statistics to discuss metrics that are merged into one with a gain in indexing, but a loss in informational value). The names of locations should be understood as denoting routing direction vectors, i.e., information that is used to deliver packets to their destinations.


IP numbers name networking interfaces, and typically only when the interface is connected to the network. Originally, IP numbers had long-term significance. Today, the vast number of interfaces use ephemeral and/or non-unique IP numbers. That is, every time an interface is connected to the network, it is assigned an IP number.


In the current Internet, the transport layers are coupled to the IP addresses. Neither can evolve separately from the other. IPng deliberations were strongly shaped by the decision that a corresponding TCPng would not be created.

現在のインターネットでは、トランスポート層は、IPアドレスに接続されています。どちらも他とは別に進化することはできません。 IPngの審議を強く対応するTCPngが作成されないことを決定によって成形しました。

There are three critical deficiencies with the current namespaces. First, dynamic readdressing cannot be directly managed. Second, anonymity is not provided in a consistent, trustable manner. Finally, authentication for systems and datagrams is not provided. All of these deficiencies arise because computing platforms are not well named with the current namespaces.


4.1. A Desire for a Namespace for Computing Platforms
4.1. コンピューティング・プラットフォームのための名前空間のための欲望

An independent namespace for computing platforms could be used in end-to-end operations independent of the evolution of the internetworking layer and across the many internetworking layers.


This could support rapid readdressing of the internetworking layer because of mobility, rehoming, or renumbering.


If the namespace for computing platforms is based on public key cryptography, it can also provide authentication services. If this namespace is locally created without requiring registration, it can provide anonymity.


Such a namespace (for computing platforms) and the names in it should have the following characteristics:


o The namespace should be applied to the IP 'kernel'. The IP kernel is the 'component' between applications and the packet transport infrastructure.

O名前空間はIP「カーネル」に適用されるべきです。 IPカーネルは、アプリケーションおよびパケットトランスポートインフラ間の「コンポーネント」です。

o The namespace should fully decouple the internetworking layer from the higher layers. The names should replace all occurrences of IP addresses within applications (like in the Transport Control Block, TCB). This may require changes to the current APIs. In the long run, it is probable that some new APIs are needed.


o The introduction of the namespace should not mandate any administrative infrastructure. Deployment must come from the bottom up, in a pairwise deployment.


o The names should have a fixed-length representation, for easy inclusion in datagram headers and existing programming interfaces (e.g., the TCB).


o Using the namespace should be affordable when used in protocols. This is primarily a packet size issue. There is also a computational concern in affordability.


o Name collisions should be avoided as much as possible. The mathematics of the birthday paradox can be used to estimate the chance of a collision in a given population and hash space. In general, for a random hash space of size n bits, we would expect to obtain a collision after approximately 1.2*sqrt(2**n) hashes were obtained. For 64 bits, this number is roughly 4 billion. A hash size of 64 bits may be too small to avoid collisions in a large population; for example, there is a 1% chance of collision in a population of 640M. For 100 bits (or more), we would not expect a collision until approximately 2**50 (1 quadrillion) hashes were generated.

O名前の衝突を極力避けるべきです。誕生日のパラドックスの数学は、所定の集団とハッシュ空間での衝突の可能性を推定するために使用することができます。一般的に、サイズnビットのランダムハッシュ空間のために、我々は後に、約1.2 *のSQRT(2 ** n)のハッシュを得た衝突を得ることが期待されます。 64ビットのため、この数はおおよそ40億です。 64ビットのハッシュサイズが大集団での衝突を回避するには小さすぎるかもしれ。例えば、640Mの人口における衝突の1%の可能性があります。約2 ** 50(1兆)のハッシュが生成されるまで100ビット(以上)のために、我々は、衝突を期待しないであろう。

o The names should have a localized abstraction that can be used in existing protocols and APIs.


o It must be possible to create names locally. This can provide anonymity at the cost of making resolvability very difficult.


* Sometimes the names may contain a delegation component. This is the cost of resolvability.


o The namespace should provide authentication services.


o The names should be long-lived, but replaceable at any time. This impacts access control lists; short lifetimes will tend to result in tedious list maintenance or require a namespace infrastructure for central control of access lists.


In this document, a new namespace approaching these ideas is called the Host Identity namespace. Using Host Identities requires its own protocol layer, the Host Identity Protocol, between the internetworking and transport layers. The names are based on public key cryptography to supply authentication services. Properly designed, it can deliver all of the above-stated requirements.


5. Host Identity Namespace

A name in the Host Identity namespace, a Host Identifier (HI), represents a statistically globally unique name for naming any system with an IP stack. This identity is normally associated with, but not limited to, an IP stack. A system can have multiple identities, some 'well known', some unpublished or 'anonymous'. A system may self-assert its own identity, or may use a third-party authenticator like DNS Security (DNSSEC) [2], Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), or X.509 to 'notarize' the identity assertion. It is expected that the Host Identifiers will initially be authenticated with DNSSEC and that all implementations will support DNSSEC as a minimal baseline.


In theory, any name that can claim to be 'statistically globally unique' may serve as a Host Identifier. However, in the authors' opinion, a public key of a 'public key pair' makes the best Host Identifier. As will be specified in the Host Identity Protocol specification, a public-key-based HI can authenticate the HIP packets and protect them from man-in-the-middle attacks. Since authenticated datagrams are mandatory to provide much of HIP's DoS protection, the Diffie-Hellman exchange in HIP has to be authenticated. Thus, only public key HI and authenticated HIP messages are supported in practice. In this document, the non-cryptographic forms of HI and HIP are presented to complete the theory of HI, but they should not be implemented as they could produce worse DoS attacks than the Internet has without Host Identity.


5.1. Host Identifiers
5.1. ホスト識別子

Host Identity adds two main features to Internet protocols. The first is a decoupling of the internetworking and transport layers; see Section 6. This decoupling will allow for independent evolution of the two layers. In addition, it can provide end-to-end services over multiple internetworking realms. The second feature is host authentication. Because the Host Identifier is a public key, this key can be used for authentication in security protocols like IPsec.


The only completely defined structure of the Host Identity is that of a public/private key pair. In this case, the Host Identity is referred to by its public component, the public key. Thus, the name representing a Host Identity in the Host Identity namespace, i.e., the Host Identifier, is the public key. In a way, the possession of the private key defines the Identity itself. If the private key is possessed by more than one node, the Identity can be considered to be a distributed one.


Architecturally, any other Internet naming convention might form a usable base for Host Identifiers. However, non-cryptographic names should only be used in situations of high trust / low risk, that is, any place where host authentication is not needed (no risk of host spoofing and no use of IPsec). However, at least for interconnected networks spanning several operational domains, the set of environments where the risk of host spoofing allowed by non-cryptographic Host Identifiers is acceptable is the null set. Hence, the current HIP documents do not specify how to use any other types of Host Identifiers but public keys.


The actual Host Identities are never directly used in any Internet protocols. The corresponding Host Identifiers (public keys) may be stored in various DNS or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directories as identified elsewhere in this document, and they are passed in the HIP base exchange. A Host Identity Tag (HIT) is used in other protocols to represent the Host Identity. Another representation of the Host Identities, the Local Scope Identifier (LSI), can also be used in protocols and APIs.

実際のホストのアイデンティティは、直接、任意のインターネットプロトコルで使用されることはありません。他の場所でこの文書に記載されている識別され、それらはHIP基本交換で渡されるように、対応するホスト識別子(公開鍵)は、さまざまなDNSまたはLDAP(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)ディレクトリに格納することができます。ホストアイデンティティタグ(HIT)は、ホストIDを表すために他のプロトコルに使用されます。ホストアイデンティティの別の表現は、ローカルスコープ識別子(LSI)は、また、プロトコルおよびAPIで使用することができます。

5.2. Storing Host Identifiers in DNS
5.2. DNSでホストの識別子を格納します

The public Host Identifiers should be stored in DNS; the unpublished Host Identifiers should not be stored anywhere (besides the communicating hosts themselves). The (public) HI is stored in a new Resource Record (RR) type, to be defined. This RR type is likely to be quite similar to the IPSECKEY RR [6].

パブリックホスト識別子は、DNSに格納する必要があります。未公開のホスト識別子は、(通信ホスト自体以外に)どこにも格納されるべきではありません。 (パブリック)HIは、新しいリソースレコード(RR)型に格納されて定義されます。このRRタイプはIPSECKEY RR [6]と全く同様である可能性が高いです。

Alternatively, or in addition to storing Host Identifiers in the DNS, they may be stored in various kinds of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Such a practice may allow them to be used for purposes other than pure host identification.


5.3. Host Identity Tag (HIT)
5.3. ホストアイデンティティタグ(HIT)

A Host Identity Tag is a 128-bit representation for a Host Identity. It is created by taking a cryptographic hash over the corresponding Host Identifier. There are two advantages of using a hash over using the Host Identifier in protocols. First, its fixed length makes for easier protocol coding and also better manages the packet size cost of this technology. Second, it presents the identity in a consistent format to the protocol independent of the cryptographic algorithms used.


In the HIP packets, the HITs identify the sender and recipient of a packet. Consequently, a HIT should be unique in the whole IP universe as long as it is being used. In the extremely rare case of a single HIT mapping to more than one Host Identity, the Host Identifiers (public keys) will make the final difference. If there is more than one public key for a given node, the HIT acts as a hint for the correct public key to use.


5.4. Local Scope Identifier (LSI)
5.4. ローカルスコープ識別子(LSI)

A Local Scope Identifier (LSI) is a 32-bit localized representation for a Host Identity. The purpose of an LSI is to facilitate using Host Identities in existing protocols and APIs. LSI's advantage over HIT is its size; its disadvantage is its local scope.

ローカルスコープ識別子(LSI)は、ホストIDの32ビットの局所的な表現です。 LSIの目的は、既存のプロトコルとAPIでホストIDを使用して容易にすることです。 HITオーバーLSIの利点は、その大きさです。その欠点は、そのローカルスコープです。

Examples of how LSIs can be used include: as the address in an FTP command and as the address in a socket call. Thus, LSIs act as a bridge for Host Identities into IPv4-based protocols and APIs.


6. New Stack Architecture

One way to characterize Host Identity is to compare the proposed new architecture with the current one. As discussed above, the IP addresses can be seen to be a confounding of routing direction vectors and interface names. Using the terminology from the IRTF Name Space Research Group Report [7] and, e.g., the unpublished Internet Draft "Endpoints and Endpoint Names" [10] by Noel Chiappa, the IP addresses currently embody the dual role of locators and end-point identifiers. That is, each IP address names a topological location in the Internet, thereby acting as a routing direction vector, or locator. At the same time, the IP address names the physical network interface currently located at the point-of-attachment, thereby acting as an end-point name.

ホストのアイデンティティを特徴づけるための一つの方法は、現在の1で提案された新しいアーキテクチャを比較することです。上述したように、IPアドレスは、方向ベクトルとインタフェース名をルーティングする交絡であることが分かります。 IRTFネームスペース研究会報告書[7]と、例えば、未発表のインターネットドラフトは、「エンドポイントとエンドポイントの名前は」[10]はクリスマスChiappaによって、IPアドレスが現在のロケータとエンドポイント識別子の二重の役割を具現化から専門用語を使用します。つまり、インターネットに位相的な位置は、それによってルーティング方向ベクトル、またはロケータとして動作する各IPアドレスの名前です。同時に、IPアドレスの名前現在のポイント・オブ・添​​付ファイルにある物理ネットワークインタフェースは、それによって、エンドポイント名として機能します。

In the HIP architecture, the end-point names and locators are separated from each other. IP addresses continue to act as locators. The Host Identifiers take the role of end-point identifiers. It is important to understand that the end-point names based on Host Identities are slightly different from interface names; a Host Identity can be simultaneously reachable through several interfaces.

HIPアーキテクチャでは、エンドポイント名とロケータは互いに分離されています。 IPアドレスは、ロケータとして機能し続けています。ホスト識別子は、エンドポイント識別子の役割を担います。ホストのアイデンティティに基づいて、エンドポイント名は、インタフェース名とは少し異なっていることを理解することが重要です。ホストIDは、複数のインタフェースを介して同時に到達することができます。

The difference between the bindings of the logical entities is illustrated in Figure 1.


   Service ------ Socket                  Service ------ Socket
                    |                                      |
                    |                                      |
                    |                                      |
                    |                                      |
   End-point        |                    End-point --- Host Identity
            \       |                                      |
              \     |                                      |
                \   |                                      |
                  \ |                                      |
   Location --- IP address                Location --- IP address

Figure 1


6.1. Transport Associations and End-points
6.1. 交通協会とエンドポイント

Architecturally, HIP provides for a different binding of transport-layer protocols. That is, the transport-layer associations, i.e., TCP connections and UDP associations, are no longer bound to IP addresses but to Host Identities.


It is possible that a single physical computer hosts several logical end-points. With HIP, each of these end-points would have a distinct Host Identity. Furthermore, since the transport associations are bound to Host Identities, HIP provides for process migration and clustered servers. That is, if a Host Identity is moved from one physical computer to another, it is also possible to simultaneously move all the transport associations without breaking them. Similarly, if it is possible to distribute the processing of a single Host Identity over several physical computers, HIP provides for cluster-based services without any changes at the client end-point.

単一の物理コンピュータが複数の論理エンドポイントをホストすることも可能です。 HIPと、これらのエンドポイントのそれぞれが別々のホストIDを持っているでしょう。輸送関連がアイデンティティをホストするためにバインドされているので、HIPは、プロセスの移行とクラスタ化されたサーバーを提供します。ホストのアイデンティティを別の物理コンピュータから移動した場合には、同時に、それらを壊すことなく、すべての輸送関連を移動させることも可能です。それはいくつかの物理コンピュータ上で、単一のホストIDの処理を分散することが可能である場合には同様に、HIPは、クライアントのエンドポイントでの変更なしで、クラスタベースのサービスを提供します。

7. End-host Mobility and Multi-homing

HIP decouples the transport from the internetworking layer, and binds the transport associations to the Host Identities (through actually either the HIT or LSI). Consequently, HIP can provide for a degree of internetworking mobility and multi-homing at a low infrastructure cost. HIP mobility includes IP address changes (via any method) to either party. Thus, a system is considered mobile if its IP address can change dynamically for any reason like PPP, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), IPv6 prefix reassignments, or a Network Address Translation (NAT) device remapping its translation. Likewise, a system is considered multi-homed if it has more than one globally routable IP address at the same time. HIP links IP addresses together, when multiple IP addresses correspond to the same Host Identity, and if one address becomes unusable, or a more preferred address becomes available, existing transport associations can easily be moved to another address.

HIPは、インターネットワーキングレイヤからトランスポートを分離し、(実際HITまたはLSIのいずれかを介して)ホストIDに輸送アソシエーションを結合します。その結果、HIPは低いインフラコストでモビリティとマルチホーミングをインターネットワーキングの度合いを提供することができます。 HIP移動度はいずれの当事者に(いずれかの方法を介した)IPアドレスの変更が含まれています。そのIPアドレスがPPP、動的ホスト構成プロトコル(DHCP)、IPv6プレフィックスの再割り当て、またはその翻訳を再マッピングネットワークアドレス変換(NAT)デバイスのような何らかの理由で動的に変更することができればこのように、システムは、モバイルと考えられています。同様に、システムはマルチホームとみなされ、それは同時に複数のグローバルにルーティング可能なIPアドレスを持っている場合。 HIPは、複数のIPアドレスが同じホストIDに対応する場合、IPは、一緒にアドレスリンク、及び1つのアドレスが使用不能になる、またはそれ以上の好適なアドレスが利用可能になった場合、既存のトランスポート関連付けを容易に別のアドレスに移動させることができます。

When a node moves while communication is already ongoing, address changes are rather straightforward. The peer of the mobile node can just accept a HIP or an integrity protected IPsec packet from any address and ignore the source address. However, as discussed in Section 7.2 below, a mobile node must send a HIP readdress packet to inform the peer of the new address(es), and the peer must verify that the mobile node is reachable through these addresses. This is especially helpful for those situations where the peer node is sending data periodically to the mobile node (that is restarting a connection after the initial connection).


7.1. Rendezvous Mechanism
7.1. ランデブーメカニズム

Making a contact to a mobile node is slightly more involved. In order to start the HIP exchange, the initiator node has to know how to reach the mobile node. Although infrequently moving HIP nodes could use Dynamic DNS [1] to update their reachability information in the DNS, an alternative to using DNS in this fashion is to use a piece of new static infrastructure to facilitate rendezvous between HIP nodes.

モバイルノードへの接触を作ることは少し複雑です。 HIP交換を開始するために、イニシエータノードは、移動ノードに到達する方法を知っている必要があります。まれにダイナミックDNS [1]はDNSでの到達可能性情報を更新するために使用できるHIPノードを移動するが、このようにDNSを使用する代わりに、HIPノード間のランデブーを容易にするために、新しい静的インフラの一部を使用することです。

The mobile node keeps the rendezvous infrastructure continuously updated with its current IP address(es). The mobile nodes must trust the rendezvous mechanism to properly maintain their HIT and IP address mappings.


The rendezvous mechanism is also needed if both of the nodes happen to change their address at the same time, either because they are mobile and happen to move at the same time, because one of them is off-line for a while, or because of some other reason. In such a case, the HIP readdress packets will cross each other in the network and never reach the peer node.


A separate document will specify the details of the HIP rendezvous mechanism.


7.2. Protection against Flooding Attacks
7.2. フラッディング攻撃に対する保護

Although the idea of informing about address changes by simply sending packets with a new source address appears appealing, it is not secure enough. That is, even if HIP does not rely on the source address for anything (once the base exchange has been completed), it appears to be necessary to check a mobile node's reachability at the new address before actually sending any larger amounts of traffic to the new address.


Blindly accepting new addresses would potentially lead to flooding DoS attacks against third parties [8]. In a distributed flooding attack, an attacker opens high-volume HIP connections with a large number of hosts (using unpublished HIs), and then claims to all of these hosts that it has moved to a target node's IP address. If the peer hosts were to simply accept the move, the result would be a packet flood to the target node's address. To close this attack, HIP includes an address check mechanism where the reachability of a node is separately checked at each address before using the address for larger amounts of traffic.


Whenever HIP is used between two hosts that fully trust each other, the hosts may optionally decide to skip the address tests. However, such performance optimization must be restricted to peers that are known to be trustworthy and capable of protecting themselves from malicious software.


8. HIP and IPsec
8. HIPとIPsec

The preferred way of implementing HIP is to use IPsec to carry the actual data traffic. As of today, the only completely defined method is to use IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) to carry the data packets. In the future, other ways of transporting payload data may be developed, including ones that do not use cryptographic protection.


In practice, the HIP base exchange uses the cryptographic Host Identifiers to set up a pair of ESP Security Associations (SAs) to enable ESP in an end-to-end manner. This is implemented in a way that can span addressing realms.


While it would be possible, at least in theory, to use some existing cryptographic protocol, such as IKEv2 together with Host Identifiers, to establish the needed SAs, HIP defines a new protocol. There are a number of historical reasons for this, and there are also a few architectural reasons. First, IKE and IKEv2 were not designed with middle boxes in mind. As adding a new naming layer allows one to potentially add a new forwarding layer (see Section 9, below), it is very important that the HIP protocols are friendly toward any middle boxes.


Second, from a conceptual point of view, the IPsec Security Parameter Index (SPI) in ESP provides a simple compression of the HITs. This does require per-HIT-pair SAs (and SPIs), and a decrease of policy granularity over other Key Management Protocols, such as IKE and IKEv2. In particular, the current thinking is limited to a situation where, conceptually, there is only one pair of SAs between any given pair of HITs. In other words, from an architectural point of view, HIP only supports host-to-host (or endpoint-to-endpoint) Security Associations. If two hosts need more pairs of parallel SAs, they should use separate HITs for that. However, future HIP extensions may provide for more granularity and creation of several ESP SAs between a pair of HITs.

第二に、ビューの概念的な観点から、ESPのIPsecセキュリティパラメータインデックス(SPI)は、ヒットの簡単な圧縮を提供します。これはあたり-HIT-ペアのSA(とのSPI)、および、そのようなIKEやIKEv2のようなその他のキー管理プロトコル、オーバー政策の粒度の減少を必要としません。特に、現在の考えは、概念的に、ヒットの任意の対の間のSAの一方のみペアがあり、状況に制限されます。言い換えれば、アーキテクチャの観点から、HIPはホスト間(またはエンドポイント・ツー・エンドポイント)セキュリティアソシエーションをサポートしています。 2つのホストが並列SAのより多くのペアを必要とする場合、彼らはそのための別のヒットを使用する必要があります。しかし、将来のHIP拡張は、ヒットのペアの間にいくつかのESP SAのより細かと創造を提供することができます。

Since HIP is designed for host usage, not for gateways or so-called Bump-in-the-Wire (BITW) implementations, only ESP transport mode is supported. An ESP SA pair is indexed by the SPIs and the two HITs (both HITs since a system can have more than one HIT). The SAs need not be bound to IP addresses; all internal control of the SA is by the HITs. Thus, a host can easily change its address using Mobile IP, DHCP, PPP, or IPv6 readdressing and still maintain the SAs.

HIPはないゲートウェイまたはいわゆるバンプ・イン・ザ・ワイヤ(BITW)実装のために、ホストの使用のために設計されているので、唯一のESP転送モードがサポートされています。 ESP SA対はのSPIと2安打(システムが複数のHITを有することができるので、両方のヒット)によってインデックス付けされます。 SAはIPアドレスにバインドする必要はありません。 SAの全ての内部コントロールがヒットです。したがって、ホストは、簡単にモバイルIP、DHCP、PPP、またはIPv6アドレスの再設定を使用して、そのアドレスを変更することができますし、まだSAを維持します。

Since the transports are bound to the SA (via an LSI or a HIT), any active transport is also maintained. Thus, real-world conditions like loss of a PPP connection and its re-establishment or a mobile handover will not require a HIP negotiation or disruption of transport services [12].


Since HIP does not negotiate any SA lifetimes, all lifetimes are local policy. The only lifetimes a HIP implementation must support are sequence number rollover (for replay protection) and SA timeout. An SA times out if no packets are received using that SA. Implementations may support lifetimes for the various ESP transforms.

HIPは、任意のSAライフタイムを交渉していないので、すべての寿命は、ローカルポリシーです。唯一のHIP実装がサポートしなければならない寿命がシーケンス(再生保護のための)数のロールオーバーとSAのタイムアウトです。 SA回パケットがそのSAを使用して受信されない場合はアウト。実装は、様々なESPトランスフォームのための寿命をサポートすることができます。

9. HIP and NATs

Passing packets between different IP addressing realms requires changing IP addresses in the packet header. This may happen, for example, when a packet is passed between the public Internet and a private address space, or between IPv4 and IPv6 networks. The address translation is usually implemented as Network Address Translation (NAT) [4] or NAT Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) [3].


In a network environment where identification is based on the IP addresses, identifying the communicating nodes is difficult when NAT is used. With HIP, the transport-layer end-points are bound to the Host Identities. Thus, a connection between two hosts can traverse many addressing realm boundaries. The IP addresses are used only for routing purposes; they may be changed freely during packet traversal.

NATを使用する場合の識別はIPアドレスに基づいてネットワーク環境では、通信ノードを識別することは困難です。 HIPでは、トランスポート層のエンドポイントは、ホストアイデンティティにバインドされています。したがって、2つのホスト間の接続は、多くのアドレッシング領域の境界を横断することができます。 IPアドレスはルーティングのみを目的として使用されています。彼らは、パケットトラバーサル中に自由に変更することができます。

For a HIP-based flow, a HIP-aware NAT or NAT-PT system tracks the mapping of HITs, and the corresponding IPsec SPIs, to an IP address. The NAT system has to learn mappings both from HITs and from SPIs to IP addresses. Many HITs (and SPIs) can map to a single IP address on a NAT, simplifying connections on address-poor NAT interfaces. The NAT can gain much of its knowledge from the HIP packets themselves; however, some NAT configuration may be necessary.

HIPベースのフローのために、HIP対応NATまたはNAT-PTシステムは、IPアドレスのヒットのマッピング、および対応するIPsecのSPIを、追跡します。 NATシステムは、IPアドレスのヒットからとSPIの両方からマッピングを学ばなければなりません。多くのヒット(とのSPI)は、アドレスが乏しいNATインターフェイスの接続を簡素化し、NAT上の単一のIPアドレスにマッピングすることができます。 NATは、HIPパケットそのものからその知識の多くを得ることができます。しかし、いくつかのNAT設定が必要になることがあります。

NAT systems cannot touch the datagrams within the IPsec envelope; thus, application-specific address translation must be done in the end systems. HIP provides for 'Distributed NAT', and uses the HIT or the LSI as a placeholder for embedded IP addresses.

NATシステムは、IPsecエンベロープ内のデータグラムに触れることができません。このように、アプリケーション固有のアドレス変換は、エンドシステムで行わなければなりません。 HIPは、「分散型NAT」を提供し、埋め込まれたIPアドレスのプレースホルダとしてHITかLSIを使用しています。

9.1. HIP and TCP Checksums
9.1. HIPとTCPチェックサム

There is no way for a host to know if any of the IP addresses in an IP header are the addresses used to calculate the TCP checksum. That is, it is not feasible to calculate the TCP checksum using the actual IP addresses in the pseudo header; the addresses received in the incoming packet are not necessarily the same as they were on the sending host. Furthermore, it is not possible to recompute the upper-layer checksums in the NAT/NAT-PT system, since the traffic is IPsec protected. Consequently, the TCP and UDP checksums are calculated using the HITs in the place of the IP addresses in the pseudo header. Furthermore, only the IPv6 pseudo header format is used. This provides for IPv4/IPv6 protocol translation.

IPヘッダ内のIPアドレスのいずれかがTCPチェックサムを計算するために使用するアドレスがある場合は、ホストが知ってする方法はありません。すなわち、疑似ヘッダの実際のIPアドレスを使用して、TCPチェックサムを計算することは不可能です。彼らは送信ホスト上にあったとして、着信パケットの受信アドレスは必ずしも同じではありません。また、トラフィックがIPsecが保護されているため、NAT / NAT-PTシステムにおける上位層チェックサムを再計算することは不可能です。結果として、TCPとUDPチェックサムは、疑似ヘッダ内のIPアドレスの代わりにヒットを用いて計算されます。また、IPv6のみ擬似ヘッダフォーマットが使用されます。これは、IPv4 / IPv6プロトコル変換のために用意されています。

10. Multicast

Back in the Fall of 2003, there were little if any concrete thoughts about how HIP might affect IP-layer or application-layer multicast.


11. HIP Policies
11. HIPポリシー

There are a number of variables that will influence the HIP exchanges that each host must support. All HIP implementations should support at least 2 HIs, one to publish in DNS and an unpublished one for anonymous usage. Although unpublished HIs will be rarely used as responder HIs, they are likely be common for initiators. Support for multiple HIs is recommended.


Many initiators would want to use a different HI for different responders. The implementations should provide for a policy of initiator HIT to responder HIT. This policy should also include preferred transforms and local lifetimes.


Responders would need a similar policy, describing the hosts allowed to participate in HIP exchanges, and the preferred transforms and local lifetimes.


12. Benefits of HIP

In the beginning, the network layer protocol (i.e., IP) had the following four "classic" invariants:


o Non-mutable: The address sent is the address received.


o Non-mobile: The address does not change during the course of an "association".


o Reversible: A return header can always be formed by reversing the source and destination addresses.


o Omniscient: Each host knows what address a partner host can use to send packets to it.


Actually, the fourth can be inferred from 1 and 3, but it is worth mentioning for reasons that will be obvious soon if not already.


In the current "post-classic" world, we are intentionally trying to get rid of the second invariant (both for mobility and for multi-homing), and we have been forced to give up the first and the fourth. Realm Specific IP [5] is an attempt to reinstate the fourth invariant without the first invariant. IPv6 is an attempt to reinstate the first invariant.

現在の「ポスト古典的な」世界では、我々は意図的に(移動性のためとマルチホーミング用の両方)は、第2の不変を取り除くためにしようとしている、と私たちは、第一及び第四のをあきらめることを余儀なくされています。レルム特定IP [5]第一不変ことなく第不変を回復しようとする試みです。 IPv6は最初の不変を回復しようとする試みです。

Few systems on the Internet have DNS names that are meaningful. That is, if they have a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), that name typically belongs to a NAT device or a dial-up server, and does not really identify the system itself but its current connectivity. FQDNs (and their extensions as email names) are application-layer names, more frequently naming services than a particular system. This is why many systems on the Internet are not registered in the DNS; they do not have services of interest to other Internet hosts.

インターネット上のいくつかのシステムでは、意味のあるDNS名を持っています。それは、彼らが完全修飾ドメイン名(FQDN)を持っている場合は、その名前は通常、NATデバイスまたはダイヤルアップサーバーに属し、実際にシステム自体が、その現在の接続を識別しない、です。 FQDN(電子メール名などその拡張子)は、より頻繁に、特定のシステムよりも、ネーミングサービス、アプリケーション層の名前です。インターネット上の多くのシステムがDNSに登録されていないのはこのためです。彼らは、他のインターネットホストへの関心のサービスを持っていません。

DNS names are references to IP addresses. This only demonstrates the interrelationship of the networking and application layers. DNS, as the Internet's only deployed, distributed database, is also the repository of other namespaces, due in part to DNSSEC-specific and application-specific key records. Although each namespace can be stretched (IP with v6, DNS with KEY records), neither can adequately provide for host authentication or act as a separation between internetworking and transport layers.

DNS名は、IPアドレスへの参照です。これは、ネットワークおよびアプリケーション層の相互関係を示しています。 DNSは、インターネットの唯一の展開、分散データベースとして、また、DNSSEC固有およびアプリケーション固有のキーレコードに一部起因他の名前空間のリポジトリです。各名前空間は(V6、KEYレコードをDNSとIP)を延伸することができるが、いずれも十分にインターネットワーキング及び輸送層との間の分離としてホスト認証または行為を提供することができません。

The Host Identity (HI) namespace fills an important gap between the IP and DNS namespaces. An interesting thing about the HI is that it actually allows one to give up all but the 3rd network-layer invariant. That is to say, as long as the source and destination addresses in the network-layer protocol are reversible, then things work OK because HIP takes care of host identification, and reversibility allows one to get a packet back to one's partner host. You do not care if the network-layer address changes in transit (mutable), and you do not care what network-layer address the partner is using (non-omniscient).

ホストアイデンティティ(HI)名前空間には、IPおよびDNS名前空間との間に重要なギャップを埋めます。 HIについて興味深いのは、それが実際には1つの不変の第三ネットワーク層が、すべてを放棄することを可能にするということです。これは、HIPは、ホスト識別の世話をし、可逆性は、1が戻って自分のパートナーのホストにパケットを取得することができますので、限り、ネットワーク層プロトコルの送信元と送信先のアドレスが可逆的であるとして、その後、物事はOK仕事、と言うことです。輸送中のネットワーク層アドレスの変更(変更可能)場合は、気にしない、とあなたはパートナーが使用しているネットワーク層アドレス(非全知を)気にしません。

12.1. HIP's Answers to NSRG Questions
12.1. NSRGの質問にHIPの回答

The IRTF Name Space Research Group has posed a number of evaluating questions in its report [7]. In this section, we provide answers to these questions.


1. How would a stack name improve the overall functionality of the Internet?


          HIP decouples the internetworking layer from the transport
          layer, allowing each to evolve separately.  The decoupling
          makes end-host mobility and multi-homing easier, also across

IPv4 and IPv6 networks. HIs make network renumbering easier, and they also make process migration and clustered servers easier to implement. Furthermore, being cryptographic in nature, they provide the basis for solving the security problems related to end-host mobility and multi-homing.


2. What does a stack name look like?
          A HI is a cryptographic public key.  However, instead of using
          the keys directly, most protocols use a fixed-size hash of the
          public key.
3. What is its lifetime?
          HIP provides both stable and temporary Host Identifiers.
          Stable HIs are typically long-lived, with a lifetime of years
          or more.  The lifetime of temporary HIs depends on how long
          the upper-layer connections and applications need them, and
          can range from a few seconds to years.
4. Where does it live in the stack?

The HIs live between the transport and internetworking layers.


5. How is it used on the end-points?
          The Host Identifiers may be used directly or indirectly (in
          the form of HITs or LSIs) by applications when they access
          network services.  In addition, the Host Identifiers, as
          public keys, are used in the built-in key agreement protocol,
          called the HIP base exchange, to authenticate the hosts to
          each other.
6. What administrative infrastructure is needed to support it?
          In some environments, it is possible to use HIP
          opportunistically, without any infrastructure.  However, to
          gain full benefit from HIP, the HIs must be stored in the DNS
          or a PKI, and a new rendezvous mechanism is needed.  Such a
          new rendezvous mechanism may need new infrastructure to be

7. If we add an additional layer, would it make the address list in Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) unnecessary?




8. What additional security benefits would a new naming scheme offer?


          HIP reduces dependency on IP addresses, making the so-called
          address ownership [11] problems easier to solve.  In practice,
          HIP provides security for end-host mobility and multi-homing.
          Furthermore, since HIP Host Identifiers are public keys,
          standard public key certificate infrastructures can be applied
          on the top of HIP.

9. What would the resolution mechanisms be, or what characteristics of a resolution mechanisms would be required?


          For most purposes, an approach where DNS names are resolved
          simultaneously to HIs and IP addresses is sufficient.
          However, if it becomes necessary to resolve HIs into IP
          addresses or back to DNS names, a flat resolution
          infrastructure is needed.  Such an infrastructure could be
          based on the ideas of Distributed Hash Tables, but would
          require significant new development and deployment.
13. Security Considerations

HIP takes advantage of the new Host Identity paradigm to provide secure authentication of hosts and to provide a fast key exchange for IPsec. HIP also attempts to limit the exposure of the host to various Denial-of-Service (DoS) and Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks. In so doing, HIP itself is subject to its own DoS and MitM attacks that potentially could be more damaging to a host's ability to conduct business as usual.

HIPは、ホストの安全な認証を提供するために、およびIPsecのための高速な鍵交換を提供するために、新しいホストのアイデンティティのパラダイムを利用しています。 HIPは、様々なの-サービス拒否(DoS)のとMITM(中間者)攻撃へのホストの露出を制限しようとします。そうすることで、HIP自体が潜在的に通常通り業務を遂行するために、ホストの能力によりダメージを与える可能性があり、独自のDoSとのMitM攻撃の対象となります。

Resource-exhausting DoS attacks take advantage of the cost of setting up a state for a protocol on the responder compared to the 'cheapness' on the initiator. HIP allows a responder to increase the cost of the start of state on the initiator and makes an effort to reduce the cost to the responder. This is done by having the responder start the authenticated Diffie-Hellman exchange instead of the initiator, making the HIP base exchange 4 packets long. There are more details on this process in the Host Identity Protocol.

リソース・排気DoS攻撃は、イニシエータの「安っぽさ」に比べて応答のプロトコルの状態を設定するコストを活用します。 HIPは、レスポンダは、イニシエータ上の状態の開始のコストを増加させることを可能にすると応答者へのコストを削減する努力をします。これは、レスポンダはイニシエータの代わりに認証のDiffie-Hellman交換を開始有する4パケット長HIP基本交換を行うことによって行われます。ホストアイデンティティプロトコルにおけるこのプロセスの詳細があります。

HIP optionally supports opportunistic negotiation. That is, if a host receives a start of transport without a HIP negotiation, it can attempt to force a HIP exchange before accepting the connection. This has the potential for DoS attacks against both hosts. If the method to force the start of HIP is expensive on either host, the attacker need only spoof a TCP SYN. This would put both systems into the expensive operations. HIP avoids this attack by having the responder send a simple HIP packet that it can pre-build. Since this packet is fixed and easily replayed, the initiator reacts to it only if it has just started a connection to the responder.

HIPは、必要に応じて、日和見ネゴシエーションをサポートしています。これは、ホストがHIP交渉なし輸送の開始を受信した場合、それは接続を受け入れる前にHIP交換を強制的に試みることができ、あります。これは、両方のホストに対するDoS攻撃の可能性を持っています。 HIPの開始を強制する方法は、いずれかのホスト上に高価である場合、攻撃者はTCP SYNを偽装する必要が。これは、高価な操作に両方のシステムを入れるでしょう。 HIPは、応答者は、それが事前にビルドすることができ、簡単なHIPパケットを送信することによって、この攻撃を回避することができます。このパケットが固定され、簡単に再生されるので、イニシエータはそれだけでレスポンダーへの接続を開始した場合にのみ、それに反応します。

MitM attacks are difficult to defend against, without third-party authentication. A skillful MitM could easily handle all parts of the HIP base exchange, but HIP indirectly provides the following protection from an MitM attack. If the responder's HI is retrieved from a signed DNS zone or secured by some other means, the initiator can use this to authenticate the signed HIP packets. Likewise, if the initiator's HI is in a secure DNS zone, the responder can retrieve it and validate the signed HIP packets. However, since an initiator may choose to use an unpublished HI, it knowingly risks an MitM attack. The responder may choose not to accept a HIP exchange with an initiator using an unknown HI.


In HIP, the Security Association for IPsec is indexed by the SPI; the source address is always ignored, and the destination address may be ignored as well. Therefore, HIP-enabled IPsec Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP) is IP address independent. This might seem to make it easier for an attacker, but ESP with replay protection is already as well protected as possible, and the removal of the IP address as a check should not increase the exposure of IPsec ESP to DoS attacks.

HIPでは、IPsecのセキュリティアソシエーションは、SPIによってインデックスされます。送信元アドレスは常に無視され、宛先アドレスは、同様に無視することができます。したがって、HIP対応のIPsecカプセル化セキュリティペイロード(ESP)は、独立したIPアドレスです。これは、攻撃者のためにそれを容易にするために見えるかもしれませんが、ESPのリプレイ保護とは、すでに可能な限り保護されており、チェックなどのIPアドレスの除去は、DoS攻撃へのIPsec ESPの露出を増やすべきではありません。

Since not all hosts will ever support HIP, ICMPv4 'Destination Unreachable, Protocol Unreachable' and ICMPv6 'Parameter Problem, Unrecognized Next Header' messages are to be expected and present a DoS attack. Against an initiator, the attack would look like the responder does not support HIP, but shortly after receiving the ICMP message, the initiator would receive a valid HIP packet. Thus, to protect against this attack, an initiator should not react to an ICMP message until a reasonable time has passed, allowing it to get the real responder's HIP packet. A similar attack against the responder is more involved.


Another MitM attack is simulating a responder's administrative rejection of a HIP initiation. This is a simple ICMP 'Destination Unreachable, Administratively Prohibited' message. A HIP packet is not used because it would have to either have unique content, and thus difficult to generate, resulting in yet another DoS attack, or be just as spoofable as the ICMP message. Like in the previous case, the defense against this attack is for the initiator to wait a reasonable time period to get a valid HIP packet. If one does not come, then the initiator has to assume that the ICMP message is valid. Since this is the only point in the HIP base exchange where this ICMP message is appropriate, it can be ignored at any other point in the exchange.

別のMITM攻撃は、HIP開始の応答者の行政拒絶反応をシミュレートしています。これは、単純なICMP「宛先到達不能、管理上禁止」というメッセージです。それはいずれかのユニークなコンテンツを持っていなければならないので、困難生成するために、さらに別のDoS攻撃をもたらす、またはICMPメッセージと同じようにスプーフィングできることため、HIPパケットが使用されません。前の場合のように、この攻撃に対する防御は、イニシエータが有効なHIPパケットを取得するには、合理的な期間を待機することです。 1が来ない場合には、イニシエータは、ICMPメッセージが有効であることを前提としています。これは、このICMPメッセージが適切であるHIP基本交換の唯一のポイントであるので、交換の任意の他の点では無視することができます。

13.1. HITs Used in ACLs
13.1. ACLの中で使用されるヒット

It is expected that HITs will be used in Access Control Lists (ACLs). Future firewalls can use HITs to control egress and ingress to networks, with an assurance level difficult to achieve today. As discussed above in Section 8, once a HIP session has been established, the SPI value in an IPsec packet may be used as an index, indicating the HITs. In practice, firewalls can inspect HIP packets to learn of the bindings between HITs, SPI values, and IP addresses. They can even explicitly control IPsec usage, dynamically opening IPsec ESP only for specific SPI values and IP addresses. The signatures in HIP packets allow a capable firewall to ensure that the HIP exchange is indeed happening between two known hosts. This may increase firewall security.

ヒットはアクセス制御リスト(ACL)で使用されることが期待されます。今後のファイアウォールは、今日達成することは困難保証レベルで、ネットワークへの出口と入口を制御するためにヒットを使用することができます。セクション8で上述したようにHIPセッションが確立されると、IPsecパケット内のSPI値がヒットを示す指標として用いることができます。実際には、ファイアウォールはヒット、SPI値、およびIPアドレス間のバインディングを学習するHIPパケットを検査することができます。彼らは、明示的に動的にのみ、特定のSPI値とIPアドレスのためのIPsec ESPを開いて、IPsecの使用を制御することができます。 HIPパケット内の署名が可能なファイアウォールがHIP交換が実際に二つの既知のホスト間で起こっていることを確認することを可能にします。これは、ファイアウォール、セキュリティを向上させることができます。

There has been considerable bad experience with distributed ACLs that contain public-key-related material, for example, with Secure SHell Protocol (SSH). If the owner of a key needs to revoke it for any reason, the task of finding all locations where the key is held in an ACL may be impossible. If the reason for the revocation is due to private key theft, this could be a serious issue.


A host can keep track of all of its partners that might use its HIT in an ACL by logging all remote HITs. It should only be necessary to log responder hosts. With this information, the host can notify the various hosts about the change to the HIT. There has been no attempt to develop a secure method to issue the HIT revocation notice.

ホストは、すべてのリモートヒットをログインすることで、ACLでのHITを使用するかもしれないそのパートナーのすべてを追跡することができます。それだけで応答ホストをログに記録する必要があるはずです。この情報を使用して、ホストは、HITへの変更についてのさまざまなホストに通知することができます。 HIT失効通知を発行する安全な方法を開発する試みはなされていません。

HIP-aware NATs, however, are transparent to the HIP-aware systems by design. Thus, the host may find it difficult to notify any NAT that is using a HIT in an ACL. Since most systems will know of the NATs for their network, there should be a process by which they can notify these NATs of the change of the HIT. This is mandatory for systems that function as responders behind a NAT. In a similar vein, if a host is notified of a change in a HIT of an initiator, it should notify its NAT of the change. In this manner, NATs will get updated with the HIT change.


13.2. Non-security considerations
13.2. 非セキュリティの考慮事項

The definition of the Host Identifier states that the HI need not be a public key. It implies that the HI could be any value; for example, an FQDN. This document does not describe how to support such a non-cryptographic HI. A non-cryptographic HI would still offer the services of the HIT or LSI for NAT traversal. It would be possible to carry HITs in HIP packets that had neither privacy nor authentication. Since such a mode would offer so little additional functionality for so much addition to the IP kernel, it has not been defined. Given how little public key cryptography HIP requires, HIP should only be implemented using public key Host Identities.


If it is desirable to use HIP in a low-security situation where public key computations are considered expensive, HIP can be used with very short Diffie-Hellman and Host Identity keys. Such use makes the participating hosts vulnerable to MitM and connection hijacking attacks. However, it does not cause flooding dangers, since the address check mechanism relies on the routing system and not on cryptographic strength.


14. Acknowledgements

For the people historically involved in the early stages of HIP, see the Acknowledgements section in the Host Identity Protocol specification.


During the later stages of this document, when the editing baton was transfered to Pekka Nikander, the comments from the early implementors and others, including Jari Arkko, Tom Henderson, Petri Jokela, Miika Komu, Mika Kousa, Andrew McGregor, Jan Melen, Tim Shepard, Jukka Ylitalo, and Jorma Wall, were invaluable. Finally, Lars Eggert, Spencer Dawkins, and Dave Crocker provided valuable input during the final stages of publication, most of which was incorporated but some of which the authors decided to ignore in order to get this document published in the first place.


15. Informative References

[1] Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound, "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)", RFC 2136, April 1997.

[1]は、RFC 2136 "ドメインネームシステム(DNS更新)における動的更新" いるVixie、P.、トムソン、S.、Rekhter、Y.、およびJ.はバウンド、4月1997。

[2] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033, March 2005.

[2]アレンズ、R.、Austeinと、R.、ラーソン、M.、マッシー、D.、およびS.ローズ、 "DNSセキュリティ序論と要件"、RFC 4033、2005年3月。

         Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose,
         "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4034,
         March 2005.

Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005

アレンズ、R.、Austeinと、R.、ラーソン、M.、マッシー、D.、およびS.ローズ、 "DNSセキュリティ拡張のためのプロトコル変更"、RFC 4035、2005年3月

[3] Tsirtsis, G. and P. Srisuresh, "Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT)", RFC 2766, February 2000.

[3] Tsirtsis、G.とP. Srisuresh、 "ネットワークアドレス変換 - プロトコル変換(NAT-PT)"、RFC 2766、2000年2月。

[4] Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022, January 2001.

[4] Srisuresh、P.とK. Egevang、 "伝統的なIPネットワークアドレス変換(NAT繁体字)"、RFC 3022、2001年1月。

[5] Borella, M., Lo, J., Grabelsky, D., and G. Montenegro, "Realm Specific IP: Framework", RFC 3102, October 2001.

[5]ボレッラ、M.、ロー、J.、Grabelsky、D.、およびG.モンテネグロ、 "レルム特定IP:フレームワーク"、RFC 3102、2001年10月。

[6] Richardson, M., "A Method for Storing IPsec Keying Material in DNS", RFC 4025, March 2005.

[6]リチャードソン、M.、 "DNSでの保管のIPsec鍵材料のための方法"、RFC 4025、2005年3月を。

[7] Lear, E. and R. Droms, "What's In A Name: Thoughts from the NSRG", Work in Progress, September 2003.

[7]リア、E.およびR. Droms、「どのような名前ではあります:NSRGからの思考」、進歩、2003年9月の作業。

[8] Nikander, P., et al, "Mobile IP Version 6 Route Optimization Security Design Background", RFC 4225, December 2005.

[8] Nikander、P.ら、 "モバイルIPバージョン6経路最適化セキュリティデザインの背景"、RFC 4225、2005年12月。

[9] Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC 4306, December 2005.

[9]カウフマン、C.、 "インターネットキーエクスチェンジ(IKEv2の)プロトコル"、RFC 4306、2005年12月。

[10] Chiappa, J., "Endpoints and Endpoint Names: A Proposed Enhancement to the Internet Architecture", URL, 1999.

[10] Chiappa、J.、 "エンドポイントとエンドポイント名:提案され、インターネットアーキテクチャの強化"、URL、1999。

[11] Nikander, P., "Denial-of-Service, Address Ownership, and Early Authentication in the IPv6 World", in Security Protocols, 9th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, April 25-27 2001, LNCS 2467, pp. 12-26, Springer, 2002.

[11] Nikander、P.、「サービス拒否、アドレスの所有権、およびIPv6の世界での早期の認証」セキュリティプロトコル、第9回国際ワークショップ、ケンブリッジ、英国では、4月25-27 2001、LNCS 2467、頁。 12-26、スプリンガー、2002。

[12] Bellovin, S., "EIDs, IPsec, and HostNAT", in Proceedings of the 41st IETF, Los Angeles, CA, March 1998.

[12] Bellovin氏、S.、 "のEID、IPsecの、そしてHostNAT" 第41回IETF、ロサンゼルスの議事録、CA、1998年3月で、。

Authors' Addresses


Robert Moskowitz ICSAlabs, a Division of Cybertrust Corporation 1000 Bent Creek Blvd, Suite 200 Mechanicsburg, PA USA

ロバート・モスコウィッツICSAlabs、サイバートラスト社の部門1000年ベントクリークブルバード、スイート200メカニクス、PA USA



Pekka Nikander Ericsson Research Nomadic Lab JORVAS FIN-02420 FINLAND

ペッカNikanderエリクソン研究ノマディックラボJORVAS FIN-02420フィンランド

Phone: +358 9 299 1 EMail:

電話:+358 9 299 1 Eメール

Full Copyright Statement


Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).


This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.

この文書では、BCP 78に含まれる権利と許可と制限の適用を受けており、その中の記載を除いて、作者は彼らのすべての権利を保有します。


この文書とここに含まれている情報は、基礎とCONTRIBUTOR「そのまま」、ORGANIZATION HE / SHEが表すまたはインターネットソサエティおよびインターネット・エンジニアリング・タスク・フォース放棄すべての保証、明示または、(もしあれば)後援ISに設けられています。黙示、情報の利用は、特定の目的に対する権利または商品性または適合性の黙示の保証を侵害しない任意の保証含むがこれらに限定されません。

Intellectual Property


The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

IETFは、本書またはそのような権限下で、ライセンスがたりないかもしれない程度に記載された技術の実装や使用に関係すると主張される可能性があります任意の知的財産権やその他の権利の有効性または範囲に関していかなる位置を取りません利用可能です。またそれは、それがどのような権利を確認する独自の取り組みを行ったことを示すものでもありません。 RFC文書の権利に関する手続きの情報は、BCP 78およびBCP 79に記載されています。

Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at


The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at

IETFは、その注意にこの標準を実装するために必要とされる技術をカバーすることができる任意の著作権、特許または特許出願、またはその他の所有権を持ってすべての利害関係者を招待します。 ietf-ipr@ietf.orgのIETFに情報を記述してください。



Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF Administrative Support Activity (IASA).