Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                          B. Cheng
Request for Comments: 8651                                    D. Wiggins
Category: Standards Track                         MIT Lincoln Laboratory
ISSN: 2070-1721                                           L. Berger, Ed.
                                                 LabN Consulting, L.L.C.
                                                            October 2019

Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) Control-Plane-Based Pause Extension

Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol(DLEP)コントロールプレーンベースの一時停止拡張



This document defines an extension to the Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) that enables a modem to use DLEP messages to pause and resume data traffic coming from its peer router.

このドキュメントでは、モデムがDLEPメッセージを使用してピアルーターからのデータトラフィックを一時停止および再開できるようにする、Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol(DLEP)の拡張機能を定義します。

Status of This Memo


This is an Internet Standards Track document.

これはInternet Standards Trackドキュメントです。

This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

このドキュメントは、IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force)の製品です。これは、IETFコミュニティのコンセンサスを表しています。公開レビューを受け、インターネットエンジニアリングステアリンググループ(IESG)による公開が承認されました。インターネット標準の詳細については、RFC 7841のセクション2をご覧ください。

Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at


Copyright Notice


Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

Copyright(c)2019 IETF Trustおよびドキュメントの作成者として識別された人物。全著作権所有。

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents ( in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

この文書は、BCP 78およびIETF文書に関するIETFトラストの法的規定(の対象であり、この文書の発行日に有効です。これらのドキュメントは、このドキュメントに関するあなたの権利と制限を説明しているため、注意深く確認してください。このドキュメントから抽出されたコードコンポーネントには、Trust Legal Provisionsのセクション4.eに記載されているSimplified BSD Licenseテキストが含まれている必要があり、Simplified BSD Licenseに記載されているように保証なしで提供されます。

Table of Contents


   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Key Words
   2.  Extension Usage and Identification
   3.  Extension Data Items
     3.1.  Queue Parameters
       3.1.1.  Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item
     3.2.  Pause
     3.3.  Restart
   4.  Security Considerations
   5.  IANA Considerations
     5.1.  Extension Type Value
     5.2.  Data Item Values
     5.3.  Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item Values
   6.  References
     6.1.  Normative References
     6.2.  Informative References
   Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction
1. はじめに

The Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) is defined in [RFC8175]. It provides the exchange of link-related control information between a modem and a router. DLEP defines a base set of mechanisms as well as support for possible extensions. This document defines one such extension.

Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol(DLEP)は[RFC8175]で定義されています。モデムとルーター間でリンク関連の制御情報を交換します。 DLEPはメカニズムの基本セットと可能な拡張のサポートを定義します。このドキュメントでは、そのような拡張機能の1つを定義しています。

   The base DLEP specification does not include any data-plane
   flow-control capability.  The extension defined in this document
   supports flow control of data traffic based on explicit messages sent
   via DLEP by a modem to indicate when a router should hold off sending
   traffic and when it should resume.  This functionality parallels the
   flow-control mechanism found in PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) per
   [RFC5578].  The extension also optionally supports DSCP-aware flow
   control ("DSCP" stands for "Differentiated Services Code Point") for
   use by Diffserv-aware modems.  (For general background on
   Differentiated Services, see [RFC2475].)  This functionality is very
   similar to that provided by Ethernet priority-based flow control; see
   [IEEE.802.1Q_2014].  The extension defined in this document is
   referred to as "Control-Plane-Based Pause".  Other flow-control
   methods are possible with DLEP; for example, see [DLEP-DIFFSERV] and

Note that this mechanism only applies to traffic that is to be transmitted on the modem's attached data channel and not to DLEP control messages themselves. Furthermore, it applies only to the single subnetwork that is used to connect a modem and a router, and for traffic sent from a router to a modem.


This document defines a new DLEP Extension Type Value that is used to indicate the use of the extension; see Section 2. Three new DLEP Data Items are defined in Section 3.


1.1. Key Words
1.1. キーワード

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.


2. Extension Usage and Identification
2. 拡張機能の使用と識別

The use of the Control-Plane-Based Pause Extension SHOULD be configurable. To indicate that the implementation supports the use of the Control-Plane-Based Pause Extension, an implementation MUST include the Control-Plane-Based Pause Extension Type Value in the Extensions Supported Data Item. The Extensions Supported Data Item is sent and processed according to [RFC8175].

コントロールプレーンベースの一時停止拡張の使用は構成可能である必要があります。実装がコントロールプレーンベースの一時停止拡張の使用をサポートすることを示すために、実装は、コントロールプレーンベースの一時停止拡張タイプ値を拡張サポートデータ項目に含める必要があります。 Extensions Supported Data Itemは、[RFC8175]に従って送信および処理されます。

The Control-Plane-Based Pause Extension Type Value is 2; see Section 5.


3. Extension Data Items
3. 拡張データ項目

Three Data Items are defined by this extension. The Queue Parameters Data Item is used by a modem to provide information about the DSCPs it uses in forwarding. The Pause Data Item is used by a modem to indicate when a router should cease sending packets, and the Restart Data Item is used by a modem to indicate when a router can resume sending packets.


3.1. Queue Parameters
3.1. キューパラメータ

The Queue Parameters Data Item is sent by a modem to a router to indicate DSCP values that may be independently paused. This Data Item MUST be included in a Session Initialization Response Message that also contains the Control-Plane-Based Pause Extension Type Value in the Extensions Supported Data Item. Updates to these parameters MAY be sent by a modem by including the Data Item in Session Update Messages.


The Queue Parameters Data Item groups DSCPs into logical queues, each of which is identified by a "Queue Index" field. The number of logical queues is variable, as is the number of DSCPs associated with each queue. A queue size (in bytes) is provided for informational purposes. Queue Index fields are numbered sequentially from zero, where queue index zero is a special case covering DSCPs that are not otherwise associated with a Queue Index field.


An implementation that does not support DSCPs would indicate one queue with zero DSCPs, and the number of bytes that may be in its associated link transmit queue. Additional logical queues are represented in a variable series of Queue Parameter Sub-Data Items.


The format of the Queue Parameters Data Item is:


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      | Data Item Type                | Length                        |
      |   Num Queues  | Scale |              Reserved                 |
      |               Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item 1                 |
      :                                ...                            :
      |               Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item n                 |

Data Item Type: 23


Length: Variable


Per [RFC8175], Length is the number of octets in the Data Item, excluding the Type and Length fields.


Num Queues: An 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of Queue Parameter Sub-Data Items that follow. This field MUST contain a value of at least one (1).

Num Queues:後続のキューパラメータサブデータアイテムの数を示す8ビットの符号なし整数。このフィールドには、少なくとも1つの値が含まれている必要があります。

Scale: A 4-bit unsigned integer indicating the scale used in the Queue Size Qn field. The valid values are:


                   | Value | Scale                    |
                   | 0     | B - Bytes (Octets)       |
                   | 1     | KB - Kilobytes (1024 B)  |
                   | 2     | MB - Megabytes (1024 KB) |
                   | 3     | GB - Gigabytes (1024 MB) |

Table 1: Queue Size Qn Field Values


Reserved: A 20-bit field that MUST be set to zero (0) by the sender (a modem) and ignored by the receiver (a router).


3.1.1. Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item
3.1.1. キューパラメータサブデータアイテム

Queue Parameter Sub-Data Items are an unordered list composed of Sub-Data Items with a common format. The format of the Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item is patterned after the standard format for the DLEP Data Item; see [RFC8175], Section 11.3. Any errors or inconsistencies encountered in parsing Sub-Data Items are handled in the same fashion as any other Data Item parsing error encountered in DLEP. In particular, the receiving implementation MUST issue a Session Termination Message containing a Status Data Item with status code set to 130 ("Invalid Data") and transition to the Session Termination state.

キューパラメータサブデータアイテムは、共通の形式のサブデータアイテムで構成される順序付けされていないリストです。キューパラメータサブデータアイテムのフォーマットは、DLEPデータアイテムの標準フォーマットに基づいています。 [RFC8175]のセクション11.3を参照してください。サブデータアイテムの解析で発生したエラーまたは不整合は、DLEPで発生した他のデータアイテムの解析エラーと同じ方法で処理されます。特に、受信側の実装は、ステータスコードが130(「無効なデータ」)に設定されたステータスデータアイテムを含むセッション終了メッセージを発行して、セッション終了状態に移行する必要があります。

The format of the Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item is:


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      | Sub-Data Item Type (1)        | Length                        |
      |                           Value...                            |

and Value has the format:


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      |  Queue Index  |             Queue Size Qn                     |
      | Num DSCPs Qn  |  DS Field Qn  |              ...              :
      :                          ...                  |  DS Field Qn  |

Sub-Data Item Type: A 16-bit unsigned integer that indicates the type and corresponding format of the Sub-Data Item's Value field. Sub-Data Item Types are scoped within the Data Item in which they are carried, i.e., the Sub-Data Item Type field MUST be used together with the Queue Parameters Data Item Type to identify the format of the Sub-Data Item. This field MUST be set to one (1) for the Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item.


Length: Variable


Length is the number of octets in the Sub-Data Item, excluding the Type and Length fields.


Queue Index: An 8-bit field indicating the queue index of the queue parameter represented in the Sub-Data Item. Only the first instance of a particular Queue Index value is meaningful. Subsequent Sub-Data Items containing the same Queue Index values, if present, MAY be logged via a management interface and MUST otherwise be ignored. Note that the value 255 is reserved and MUST NOT be used in this field.


Queue Size Qn: A 24-bit unsigned integer representing the size, in the octet scale indicated by the Scale field, of the queue that supports the traffic with the DSCPs associated with the queue index.


Num DSCPs Qn: An 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of DSCPs associated with the queue index associated with the Sub-Data Item.

Num DSCPs Qn:サブデータアイテムに関連付けられたキューインデックスに関連付けられたDSCPの数を示す8ビットの符号なし整数。

DS Field Qn: The Data Item contains a sequence of 8-bit DS fields. The number of DS fields present MUST equal the Num DSCPs Qn field value.

DSフィールドQn:データ項目には、8ビットのDSフィールドのシーケンスが含まれています。存在するDSフィールドの数は、Num DSCPs Qnフィールド値と等しくなければなりません。

The DS field structure is the same as the structure shown in [RFC2474].


        0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
      |         DSCP          |  CU   |

DSCP: Differentiated Services Code Point


CU: Currently Unused; MUST be zero


3.2. Pause
3.2. 一時停止

The Pause Data Item is sent by a modem to a router to indicate to its peer that traffic is to be suppressed, i.e., paused. The motivating use case for this Data Item is when a modem's internal queue length exceeds a particular threshold. Other use cases are possible, e.g., when there are non-queue-related congestion points within a modem. Such cases are not explicitly described in this document.


A modem can indicate that traffic is to be suppressed on a device-wide or destination-specific basis. An example of when a modem might use device-wide suppression is when output queues are shared across all destinations. Destination-specific suppression might be used when per-destination queuing is used. To indicate that suppression applies to all destinations, a modem MUST send the Pause Data Item in a Session Update Message. To indicate that suppression applies to a particular destination, a modem MUST send the Pause Data Item in a Destination Update Message.


Each Pause Data Item identifies the traffic to be suppressed by the Queue Index field (Section 3.1), which in turn indicates traffic identified by one or more DSCPs. The special value of 255 is used to indicate that all traffic is to be suppressed.


While there is no restriction on the number of messages containing Pause Data Items that may be sent by a modem, a modem SHOULD include multiple queue indexes in the same message when possible.


A router that receives the Pause Data Item MUST cease sending the identified traffic to the modem. This may of course translate into the router's queues exceeding their own thresholds. If a received Pause Data Item contains a Queue Index value other than 255 or a queue index established by a Session Initialization or Session Update Message, the router MUST terminate the session with a Status Data Item indicating "Invalid Data".

Pause Data Itemを受信するルーターは、識別されたトラフィックをモデムに送信することを中止しなければなりません(MUST)。これはもちろん、ルーターのキューが独自のしきい値を超えることになる可能性があります。受信したポーズデータアイテムに255以外のキューインデックス値、またはセッション初期化またはセッション更新メッセージによって確立されたキューインデックスが含まれている場合、ルーターは「無効なデータ」を示すステータスデータアイテムでセッションを終了する必要があります。

The format of the Pause Data Item is:


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      | Data Item Type                | Length                        |
      |  Queue Index  |               ...                             :
      :                                ...            |  Queue Index  |

Data Item Type: 24


Length: Variable


Per [RFC8175], Length is the number of octets in the Data Item, excluding the Type and Length fields. It will equal the number of Queue Index fields carried in the Data Item.


Queue Index: One or more 8-bit fields used to indicate a queue index defined by a Queue Parameters Data Item. The special value of 255 indicates that (1) all traffic to the modem is to be suppressed when the Data Item is carried in a Session Update Message or (2) all traffic to a particular destination is to be suppressed when the Data Item is carried in a Destination Update Message.


3.3. Restart
3.3. 再起動

The Restart Data Item is sent by a modem to a router to indicate to its peer that transmission of previously suppressed traffic may be resumed. An example of when a modem might send this Data Item is when an internal queue length drops below a particular threshold.


The sending of this Data Item parallels the Pause Data Item (see Section 3.2) and follows the same rules. To indicate that transmission can resume to all destinations, a modem MUST send the Restart Data Item in a Session Update Message. To indicate that transmission can resume to a particular destination, a modem MUST send the Restart Data Item in a Destination Update Message. Finally, the same rules apply to queue indexes.


A router that receives the Restart Data Item SHOULD resume transmission of the identified traffic to the modem.


The format of the Restart Data Item matches the Pause Data Item and is:


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      | Data Item Type                | Length                        |
      |  Queue Index  |               ...                             :
      :                                ...            |  Queue Index  |

Data Item Type: 25


Length: See Section 3.2.


Queue Index: See Section 3.2.


4. Security Considerations
4. セキュリティに関する考慮事項

The extension defined in this document introduces a new mechanism for flow control between a router and modem using DLEP. The extension does not introduce any vulnerabilities that are inherently different from those documented in [RFC8175]. The approach taken to security in that document applies equally when running the extension defined in this document.


Implementations of the extension defined in this document MUST support the configuration and use of TLS, as described in [RFC8175], in order to protect configurations where injection attacks are possible, i.e., when the link between a modem and router is not otherwise protected.


Note that this extension does allow a compromised or impersonating modem to suppress transmission by the router or a switch that interconnects the modem and router. Similar attacks are generally possible with base DLEP -- for example, an impersonating modem may cause a session reset, or a compromised modem can simply drop all traffic destined for or sent by a router. [RFC8175] defines the use of TLS to protect against such impersonating attackers.

この拡張により、侵害されたまたは偽装されたモデムが、ルーターまたはモデムとルーターを相互接続するスイッチによる送信を抑制することができることに注意してください。ベースDLEPでも同様の攻撃が一般的に可能です。たとえば、なりすましのモデムがセッションのリセットを引き起こしたり、侵害されたモデムがルーター宛またはルーターから送信されたすべてのトラフィックを単純にドロップしたりする可能性があります。 [RFC8175]は、そのようななりすましの攻撃者から保護するためのTLSの使用を定義しています。

5. IANA Considerations
5. IANAに関する考慮事項

This document assigns four new values and creates a new subregistry in the "Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) Parameters" registry.

このドキュメントでは、4つの新しい値を割り当て、「Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol(DLEP)パラメータ」レジストリに新しいサブレジストリを作成します。

5.1. Extension Type Value
5.1. 拡張タイプ値

This document adds a new assignment to the DLEP extensions registry named "Extension Type Values" [RFC8175], per the "Specification Required" policy [RFC8126]. IANA has assigned the following value:

このドキュメントでは、「必要な仕様」ポリシー[RFC8126]に従って、「拡張タイプ値」[RFC8175]という名前のDLEP拡張レジストリに新しい割り当てを追加します。 IANAは次の値を割り当てました。

                   | Code | Description               |
                   | 2    | Control-Plane-Based Pause |

Table 2: Extension Type Value


5.2. Data Item Values
5.2. データ項目の値

This document adds three new assignments to the DLEP Data Item registry named "Data Item Type Values" [RFC8175], per the "Specification Required" policy [RFC8126]. IANA has assigned the following values:

このドキュメントは、「必要な仕様」ポリシー[RFC8126]に従って、「データ項目タイプ値」[RFC8175]という名前の3つの新しい割り当てをDLEPデータ項目レジストリに追加します。 IANAは次の値を割り当てました。

                     | Type Code | Description      |
                     | 23        | Queue Parameters |
                     | 24        | Pause            |
                     | 25        | Restart          |

Table 3: Data Item Values


5.3. Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item Values
5.3. キューパラメータのサブデータアイテムの値

IANA has created a new DLEP registry named "Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item Type Values".

IANAは、「Queue Parameter Sub-Data Item Type Values」という名前の新しいDLEPレジストリを作成しました。

Table 4 provides initial registry values and the registration policies [RFC8126] that apply:


                 | Type Code   | Description/Policy     |
                 | 0           | Reserved               |
                 | 1           | Queue Parameter        |
                 | 2-65407     | Specification Required |
                 | 65408-65534 | Private Use            |
                 | 65535       | Reserved               |

Table 4: Initial Registry Values


6. References
6. 参考文献
6.1. Normative References
6.1. 引用文献

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <>.

[RFC2119] Bradner、S。、「要件レベルを示すためにRFCで使用するキーワード」、BCP 14、RFC 2119、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2119、1997年3月、< rfc2119>。

[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017, <>.

[RFC8174] Leiba、B。、「RFC 2119キーワードの大文字と小文字のあいまいさ」、BCP 14、RFC 8174、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8174、2017年5月、< rfc8174>。

[RFC8175] Ratliff, S., Jury, S., Satterwhite, D., Taylor, R., and B. Berry, "Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP)", RFC 8175, DOI 10.17487/RFC8175, June 2017, <>.

[RFC8175] Ratliff、S.、Jury、S.、Satterwhite、D.、Taylor、R。、およびB. Berry、「Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol(DLEP)」、RFC 8175、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8175、2017年6月、<>。

6.2. Informative References
6.2. 参考引用

[DLEP-CREDIT] Cheng, B., Wiggins, D., Berger, L., and S. Ratliff, "DLEP Credit-Based Flow Control Messages and Data Items", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dlep-credit-flow-control-04, 6 March 2019, <>.

[DLEP-クレジット] Cheng、B.、Wiggins、D.、Berger、L。、およびS. Ratliff、「DLEPクレジットベースのフロー制御メッセージとデータアイテム」、進行中の作業、インターネットドラフト、draft-ietf- manet-dlep-credit-flow-control-04、2019年3月6日、<>。

[DLEP-DIFFSERV] Cheng, B., Wiggins, D., and L. Berger, "DLEP DiffServ Aware Credit Window Extension", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dlep-da-credit-extension-07, 6 March 2019, <>.

[DLEP-DIFFSERV] Cheng、B.、Wiggins、D。、およびL. Berger、「DLEP DiffServ Aware Credit Window Extension」、Work in Progress、Internet-Draft、draft-ietf-manet-dlep-da-credit-extension -07、2019年3月6日、<>。

[IEEE.802.1Q_2014] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks--Bridges and Bridged Networks", IEEE 802.1Q-2014, <>.

[IEEE.802.1Q_2014] IEEE、「IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Network--Bridges and Bridged Networks」、IEEE 802.1Q-2014、<>。

[RFC2474] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black, "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474, DOI 10.17487/RFC2474, December 1998, <>.

[RFC2474] Nichols、K.、Blake、S.、Baker、F。、およびD. Black、「IPv4およびIPv6ヘッダーのDiffServフィールド(DSフィールド)の定義」、RFC 2474、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2474、 1998年12月、<>。

[RFC2475] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z., and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", RFC 2475, DOI 10.17487/RFC2475, December 1998, <>.

[RFC2475] Blake、S.、Black、D.、Carlson、M.、Davies、E.、Wang、Z.、and W. Weiss、 "An Architecture for Differentiated Services"、RFC 2475、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2475、December 1998、<>。

[RFC5578] Berry, B., Ed., Ratliff, S., Paradise, E., Kaiser, T., and M. Adams, "PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) Extensions for Credit Flow and Link Metrics", RFC 5578, DOI 10.17487/RFC5578, February 2010, <>.

[RFC5578] Berry、B.、Ed。、Ratliff、S.、Paradise、E.、Kaiser、T。、およびM. Adams、「PPP over Ethernet(PPPoE)Extensions for Credit Flow and Link Metrics」、RFC 5578、 DOI 10.17487 / RFC5578、2010年2月、<>。

[RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017, <>.

[RFC8126]コットン、M。、レイバ、B。、およびT.ナルテン、「RFCでIANAの考慮事項セクションを作成するためのガイドライン」、BCP 26、RFC 8126、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8126、2017年6月、<https:// www / info / rfc8126>。



The format for the Sub-Data Item was inspired by Rick Taylor's "Data Item Containers" idea.


Authors' Addresses


Bow-Nan Cheng MIT Lincoln Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology 244 Wood Street Lexington, MA 02421-6426 United States of America

ボウナンチェンMITリンカーン研究所マサチューセッツ工科大学244 Wood Street Lexington、MA 02421-6426アメリカ合衆国


David Wiggins MIT Lincoln Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology 244 Wood Street Lexington, MA 02420-9108 United States of America

デビッドウィギンズMITリンカーン研究所マサチューセッツ工科大学244 Wood Street Lexington、MA 02420-9108アメリカ合衆国


Lou Berger (editor) LabN Consulting, L.L.C.

ルーバーガー(編集者)LabN Consulting、L.L.C.