Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                   A. Backman, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8935                                        Amazon
Category: Standards Track                                  M. Jones, Ed.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                Microsoft
                                                            M. Scurtescu
                                                               M. Ansari
                                                              A. Nadalin
                                                           November 2020

Push-Based Security Event Token (SET) Delivery Using HTTP




This specification defines how a Security Event Token (SET) can be delivered to an intended recipient using HTTP POST over TLS. The SET is transmitted in the body of an HTTP POST request to an endpoint operated by the recipient, and the recipient indicates successful or failed transmission via the HTTP response.

この仕様は、TLSを介してHTTP POSTを使用して、セキュリティイベントトークン(SET)を意図した受信者にどのように配信できるかを定義します。セットは、受信者によって操作されたエンドポイントにHTTP POST要求の本文で送信され、受信者はHTTPレスポンスを介して成功または失敗した送信を示します。

Status of This Memo


This is an Internet Standards Track document.


This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

この文書は、インターネットエンジニアリングタスクフォース(IETF)の製品です。IETFコミュニティのコンセンサスを表します。それは公開レビューを受け、インターネットエンジニアリングステアリンググループ(IESG)による出版の承認を受けました。インターネット規格に関する詳細情報は、RFC 7841のセクション2で利用できます。

Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at


Copyright Notice


Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

Copyright(C)2020 IETFの信頼と文書著者として識別された人。全著作権所有。

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents ( in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

このドキュメントは、このドキュメントの発行日に有効なBCP 78およびIETFドキュメントに関連するIETFトラストの法的規定(の対象となります。 これらのドキュメントは、このドキュメントに関するお客様の権利と制限について説明しているため、注意深く確認してください。 このドキュメントから抽出されたコードコンポーネントには、Trust LegalProvisionsのセクション4.eで説明されているSimplifiedBSD Licenseテキストが含まれている必要があり、Simplified BSDLicenseで説明されているように保証なしで提供されます。

Table of Contents


1. Introduction and Overview 1.1. Notational Conventions 1.2. Definitions 2. SET Delivery 2.1. Transmitting a SET 2.2. Success Response 2.3. Failure Response 2.4. Security Event Token Error Codes 3. Authentication and Authorization 4. Delivery Reliability 5. Security Considerations 5.1. Authentication Using Signed SETs 5.2. HTTP Considerations 5.3. Confidentiality of SETs 5.4. Denial of Service 5.5. Authenticating Persisted SETs 6. Privacy Considerations 7. IANA Considerations 7.1. Security Event Token Error Codes 7.1.1. Registration Template 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 8. References 8.1. Normative References 8.2. Informative References Appendix A. Unencrypted Transport Considerations Acknowledgments Authors' Addresses

1. 概要と概要1.1。表記規則1.2。定義2.配信2.1を設定します。セット2.2を送信する。成功対応2.3。障害応答2.4。セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコード3.認証と承認4.配信信頼性5.セキュリティ上の考慮事項5.1。署名付きセット5.2を使用した認証。HTTPに関する考慮事項5.3。セット5.4の機密性。サービス拒否5.5。保持セットの認証6.プライバシーに関する考慮事項7. IANAの考慮事項7.1。セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコード7.1.1。登録テンプレート7.1.2。初期レジストリ内容8.参照8.1。規範的参考文献8.2。有益な参考文献付録A.暗号化されていないトランスポートに関する考慮事項承認著者の住所

1. Introduction and Overview
1. 概要と概要

This specification defines a mechanism by which a transmitter of a Security Event Token (SET) [RFC8417] can deliver the SET to an intended SET Recipient via HTTP POST [RFC7231] over TLS. This is an alternative SET delivery method to the one defined in [RFC8936].

この仕様は、セキュリティイベントトークン(SET)の送信機がTLSを介してHTTP POST [RFC7231]を介して設定されたセット受信者に設定されたメカニズムを定義しています。これは[RFC8936]で定義されているものへの代替セット配信方法です。

Push-based SET delivery over HTTP POST is intended for scenarios where all of the following apply:

HTTP POST上のプッシュベースのセット配信は、次のすべてが適用されるシナリオを対象としています。

* The transmitter of the SET is capable of making outbound HTTP requests.

* セットの送信機は、発信HTTP要求を作成することができます。

* The recipient is capable of hosting a TLS-enabled HTTP endpoint that is accessible to the transmitter.

* 受信者は、送信機にアクセス可能なTLS対応のHTTPエンドポイントをホストすることができます。

* The transmitter and recipient are willing to exchange data with one another.

* 送信機と受信者は互いにデータを交換しても構わないと思っています。

In some scenarios, either push-based or poll-based delivery could be used, and in others, only one of them would be applicable.


A mechanism for exchanging configuration metadata such as endpoint URLs, cryptographic keys, and possible implementation constraints such as buffer size limitations between the transmitter and recipient is out of scope for this specification. How SETs are defined and the process by which security events are identified for SET Recipients are specified in [RFC8417].


1.1. Notational Conventions
1.1. 表記規則

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

この文書のキーワード "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", および "OPTIONAL" はBCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174]で説明されているように、すべて大文字の場合にのみ解釈されます。

Throughout this document, all figures may contain spaces and extra line wrapping for readability and due to space limitations.


1.2. Definitions
1.2. 定義

This specification utilizes the following terms defined in [RFC8417]: "Security Event Token (SET)", "SET Issuer", "SET Recipient", and "Event Payload", as well as the term defined below:


SET Transmitter: An entity that delivers SETs in its possession to one or more SET Recipients.


2. SET Delivery
2. 配達を設定します

To deliver a SET to a given SET Recipient, the SET Transmitter makes a SET Transmission Request to the SET Recipient, with the SET itself contained within the request. The SET Recipient replies to this request with a response either acknowledging successful transmission of the SET or indicating that an error occurred while receiving, parsing, and/or validating the SET.


Upon receipt of a SET, the SET Recipient SHALL validate that all of the following are true:


* The SET Recipient can parse the SET.

* セット受信者はセットを解析できます。

* The SET is authentic (i.e., it was issued by the issuer specified within the SET, and if signed, was signed by a key belonging to the issuer).

* セットは本物である(すなわち、それはそのセット内で指定された発行者によって発行され、署名された場合、発行者に属する鍵によって署名された)。

* The SET Recipient is identified as an intended audience of the SET.

* セット受信者は、セットの意図された視聴者として識別されます。

* The SET Issuer is recognized as an issuer that the SET Recipient is willing to receive SETs from (e.g., the issuer is listed as allowed by the SET Recipient).

* セット発行者は、セット受信者がセットを受信したいと思っている発行者として認識され、(例えば、発行者は設定受信者によって許可されているようにリストされている)。

* The SET Recipient is willing to accept this SET from this SET Transmitter (e.g., the SET Transmitter is expected to send SETs with the issuer and subject of the SET in question).

* セット受信者は、このセット送信機からこのセットを受け入れることが望まれている(例えば、セット送信機は、発行者と共にセットおよびそのセットの主題を有するセットおよび課題)。

The mechanisms by which the SET Recipient performs this validation are out of scope for this document. SET parsing, issuer identification, and audience identification are defined in [RFC8417]. The mechanism for validating the authenticity of a SET is deployment specific and may vary depending on the authentication mechanisms in use and whether the SET is signed and/or encrypted (See Section 3).


SET Transmitters MAY transmit SETs issued by another entity. The SET Recipient may accept or reject (i.e., return an error response such as "access_denied") a SET at its own discretion.


The SET Recipient persists the SET in a way that is sufficient to meet the SET Recipient's own reliability requirements. The level and method of retention of SETs by SET Recipients is out of scope of this specification. Once the SET has been validated and persisted, the SET Recipient SHOULD immediately return a response indicating that the SET was successfully delivered. The SET Recipient SHOULD NOT perform further processing of the SET beyond the required validation steps prior to sending this response. Any additional steps SHOULD be executed asynchronously from delivery to minimize the time the SET Transmitter is waiting for a response.


The SET Transmitter MAY transmit the same SET to the SET Recipient multiple times, regardless of the response from the SET Recipient. The SET Recipient MUST respond as it would if the SET had not been previously received by the SET Recipient. The SET Recipient MUST NOT expect or depend on a SET Transmitter to retransmit a SET or otherwise make a SET available to the SET Recipient once the SET Recipient acknowledges that it was received successfully.


The SET Transmitter should not retransmit a SET unless the SET Transmitter suspects that previous transmissions may have failed due to potentially recoverable errors (such as network outage or temporary service interruption at either the SET Transmitter or SET Recipient). In all other cases, the SET Transmitter SHOULD NOT retransmit a SET. The SET Transmitter SHOULD delay retransmission for an appropriate amount of time to avoid overwhelming the SET Recipient (see Section 4).

セット送信機は、セット送信機が、潜在的に回復可能なエラー(SET TransmitterまたはSet Recipientのいずれかでネットワークの停止または一時的なサービスの中断など)が故障した可能性があると疑われていない限り、セットを再送信しないでください。他のすべての場合において、セット送信機はセットを再送信しないでください。セット送信機は、セット受信者を圧倒するのを避けるために適切な時間の間再送信を遅らせる必要があります(セクション4を参照)。

2.1. Transmitting a SET
2.1. セットを送信する

To transmit a SET to a SET Recipient, the SET Transmitter makes an HTTP POST request to a TLS-enabled HTTP endpoint provided by the SET Recipient. The "Content-Type" header field of this request MUST be "application/secevent+jwt" as defined in Sections 2.3 and 7.2 of [RFC8417], and the "Accept" header field MUST be "application/json". The request body MUST consist of the SET itself, represented as a JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519].

セットをセット受信者に送信するために、セット送信機は、SET受信者によって提供されたTLS対応のHTTPエンドポイントにHTTP POST要求を実行します。この要求の「content-type」ヘッダーフィールドは、[RFC8417]のセクション2.3と7.2で定義されているように「アプリケーション/ SeceVent JWT」でなければなりません。「Accept」ヘッダーフィールドは "Application / JSON"でなければなりません。要求本文は、JSON Webトークン(JWT)[RFC7519]として表されるセット自体で構成されている必要があります。

The SET Transmitter MAY include in the request an "Accept-Language" header field to indicate to the SET Recipient the preferred language(s) in which to receive error messages.


The mechanisms by which the SET Transmitter determines the HTTP endpoint to use when transmitting a SET to a given SET Recipient are not defined by this specification and are deployment specific.


The following is a non-normative example of a SET Transmission Request:


     POST /Events HTTP/1.1
     Accept: application/json
     Accept-Language: en-US, en;q=0.5
     Content-Type: application/secevent+jwt

eyJ0eXAiOiJzZWNldmVudCtqd3QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9Cg . eyJpc3MiOiJodHRwczovL2lkcC5leGFtcGxlLmNvbS8iLCJqdGkiOiI3NTZFNjk 3MTc1NjUyMDY5NjQ2NTZFNzQ2OTY2Njk2NTcyIiwiaWF0IjoxNTA4MTg0ODQ1LC JhdWQiOiI2MzZDNjk2NTZFNzQ1RjY5NjQiLCJldmVudHMiOnsiaHR0cHM6Ly9zY 2hlbWFzLm9wZW5pZC5uZXQvc2VjZXZlbnQvcmlzYy9ldmVudC10eXBlL2FjY291 bnQtZGlzYWJsZWQiOnsic3ViamVjdCI6eyJzdWJqZWN0X3R5cGUiOiJpc3Mtc3V iIiwiaXNzIjoiaHR0cHM6Ly9pZHAuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20vIiwic3ViIjoiNzM3NT YyNkE2NTYzNzQifSwicmVhc29uIjoiaGlqYWNraW5nIn19fQ . Y4rXxMD406P2edv00cr9Wf3_XwNtLjB9n-jTqN1_lLc


Figure 1: Example SET Transmission Request


2.2. Success Response
2.2. 成功の対応

If the SET is determined to be valid, the SET Recipient SHALL acknowledge successful transmission by responding with HTTP Response Status Code 202 (Accepted) (see Section 6.3.3 of [RFC7231]). The body of the response MUST be empty.


The following is a non-normative example of a successful receipt of a SET.


HTTP/1.1 202 Accepted

http / 1.1 202承認されました

Figure 2: Example Successful Delivery Response


2.3. Failure Response
2.3. 失敗応答

In the event of a general HTTP error condition, the SET Recipient responds with the applicable HTTP Status Code, as defined in Section 6 of [RFC7231].


When the SET Recipient detects an error parsing, validating, or authenticating a SET transmitted in a SET Transmission Request, the SET Recipient SHALL respond with an HTTP Response Status Code of 400 (Bad Request). The "Content-Type" header field of this response MUST be "application/json", and the body MUST be a UTF-8 encoded JSON [RFC8259] object containing the following name/value pairs:

セット受信者が設定された送信要求で送信されたセットの解析、検証、または認証を検出すると、セット受信者は、400のHTTP応答ステータスコードで応答するものとします(不良要求)。この応答の「content-type」ヘッダーフィールドは "Application / JSON"でなければならず、本文は、次の名前/値のペアを含むUTF-8エンコードされたJSON [RFC8259]オブジェクトでなければなりません。

err: A Security Event Token Error Code (see Section 2.4).


description: A UTF-8 string containing a human-readable description of the error that may provide additional diagnostic information. The exact content of this field is implementation specific.


The response MUST include a "Content-Language" header field whose value indicates the language of the error descriptions included in the response body. If the SET Recipient can provide error descriptions in multiple languages, they SHOULD choose the language to use according to the value of the "Accept-Language" header field sent by the SET Transmitter in the transmission request, as described in Section 5.3.5 of [RFC7231]. If the SET Transmitter did not send an "Accept-Language" header field, or if the SET Recipient does not support any of the languages included in the header field, the SET Recipient MUST respond with messages that are understandable by an English-speaking person, as described in Section 4.5 of [RFC2277].


The following is a non-normative example error response indicating that the key used to encrypt the SET has been revoked.


     HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
     Content-Language: en-US
     Content-Type: application/json
       "err": "invalid_key",
       "description": "Key ID 12345 has been revoked."

Figure 3: Example Error Response (invalid_key)


The following is a non-normative example error response indicating that the access token included in the request is expired.


     HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
     Content-Language: en-US
     Content-Type: application/json
       "err": "authentication_failed",
       "description": "Access token has expired."

Figure 4: Example Error Response (authentication_failed)


The following is a non-normative example error response indicating that the SET Receiver is not willing to accept SETs issued by the specified issuer from this particular SET Transmitter.


   HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
   Content-Language: en-US
   Content-Type: application/json
     "err": "invalid_issuer",
     "description": "Not authorized for issuer"

Figure 5: Example Error Response (access_denied)


2.4. Security Event Token Error Codes
2.4. セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコード

Security Event Token Error Codes are strings that identify a specific category of error that may occur when parsing or validating a SET. Every Security Event Token Error Code MUST have a unique name registered in the IANA "Security Event Token Error Codes" registry established by Section 7.1.

セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコードは、セットの解析または検証時に発生する可能性がある特定のエラーの特定のカテゴリを識別する文字列です。すべてのセキュリティイベントトークンエラーコードには、セクション7.1によって確立されたIANA "セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコード"レジストリに登録されている一意の名前が必要です。

The following table presents the initial set of Error Codes that are registered in the IANA "Security Event Token Error Codes" registry:

次の表は、IANA "セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコード"レジストリに登録されているエラーコードの初期セットを示しています。

      | Error Code            | Description                         |
      | invalid_request       | The request body cannot be parsed   |
      |                       | as a SET, or the Event Payload      |
      |                       | within the SET does not conform to  |
      |                       | the event's definition.             |
      | invalid_key           | One or more keys used to encrypt or |
      |                       | sign the SET is invalid or          |
      |                       | otherwise unacceptable to the SET   |
      |                       | Recipient (expired, revoked, failed |
      |                       | certificate validation, etc.).      |
      | invalid_issuer        | The SET Issuer is invalid for the   |
      |                       | SET Recipient.                      |
      | invalid_audience      | The SET Audience does not           |
      |                       | correspond to the SET Recipient.    |
      | authentication_failed | The SET Recipient could not         |
      |                       | authenticate the SET Transmitter.   |
      | access_denied         | The SET Transmitter is not          |
      |                       | authorized to transmit the SET to   |
      |                       | the SET Recipient.                  |

Table 1: SET Error Codes


Other Error Codes may also be received, as the set of Error Codes is extensible via the IANA "Security Event Token Error Codes" registry established in Section 7.1.


3. Authentication and Authorization
3. 認証と承認

The SET delivery method described in this specification is based upon HTTP over TLS [RFC2818] and standard HTTP authentication and authorization schemes, as per [RFC7235]. The TLS server certificate MUST be validated using DNS-ID [RFC6125] and/or DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) [RFC6698].

本明細書に記載されているセット配信方法は、[RFC7235]と同様に、TLS [RFC2818] over TLS [RFC2818]と標準のHTTP認証および承認方式に基づいています。TLSサーバー証明書は、DNS-ID [RFC6125]および/または名前付きエンティティのDNSベースの認証(DANE)[RFC6698]を使用して検証する必要があります。

Authorization for the eligibility to provide actionable SETs can be determined by using the identity of the SET Issuer, the identity of the SET Transmitter, perhaps using mutual TLS, or via other employed authentication methods. Because SETs are not commands, SET Recipients are free to ignore SETs that are not of interest.


4. Delivery Reliability
4. 配達の信頼性

Delivery reliability requirements may vary depending upon the use cases. This specification defines the response from the SET Recipient in such a way as to provide the SET Transmitter with the information necessary to determine what further action is required, if any, in order to meet their requirements. SET Transmitters with high reliability requirements may be tempted to always retry failed transmissions. However, it should be noted that for many types of SET delivery errors, a retry is extremely unlikely to be successful. For example, "invalid_request" indicates a structural error in the content of the request body that is likely to remain when retransmitting the same SET. Others such as "access_denied" may be transient, for example, if the SET Transmitter refreshes expired credentials prior to retransmission.


The SET Transmitter may be unaware of whether or not a SET has been delivered to a SET Recipient. For example, a network interruption could prevent the SET Transmitter from receiving the success response, or a service outage could prevent the SET Transmitter from recording the fact that the SET was delivered. It is left to the implementer to decide how to handle such cases, based on their requirements. For example, it may be appropriate for the SET Transmitter to retransmit the SET to the SET Recipient, erring on the side of guaranteeing delivery, or it may be appropriate to assume delivery was successful, erring on the side of not spending resources retransmitting previously delivered SETs. Other options, such as sending the SET to a "dead letter queue" for manual examination may also be appropriate.


Implementers SHOULD evaluate the reliability requirements of their use cases and the impact of various retry mechanisms and retransmission policies on the performance of their systems to determine an appropriate strategy for handling various error conditions.


5. Security Considerations
5. セキュリティに関する考慮事項
5.1. Authentication Using Signed SETs
5.1. 署名付きセットを使用した認証

JWS signed SETs can be used (see [RFC7515] and Section 5 of [RFC8417]) to enable the SET Recipient to validate that the SET Issuer is authorized to provide actionable SETs.


5.2. HTTP Considerations
5.2. HTTPに関する考慮事項

SET delivery depends on the use of Hypertext Transfer Protocol and is thus subject to the security considerations of HTTP (Section 9 of [RFC7230]) and its related specifications.


5.3. Confidentiality of SETs
5.3. セッティングの機密性

SETs may contain sensitive information, including Personally Identifiable Information (PII), or be distributed through third parties. In such cases, SET Transmitters and SET Recipients MUST protect the confidentiality of the SET contents. TLS MUST be used to secure the transmitted SETs. In some use cases, encrypting the SET as described in JWE [RFC7516] will also be required. The Event delivery endpoint MUST support at least TLS version 1.2 [RFC5246] and SHOULD support the newest version of TLS that meets its security requirements, which as of the time of this publication is TLS 1.3 [RFC8446]. The client MUST perform a TLS/SSL server certificate check using DNS-ID [RFC6125] and/or DANE [RFC6698]. How a SET Transmitter determines the expected service identity to match the SET Recipient's server certificate against is out of scope for this document. The implementation security considerations for TLS in "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)" [RFC7525] MUST be followed.

セットには、個人識別可能な情報(PII)など、機密情報を含めることも、第三者を通して配布されてもよい。そのような場合は、SETトランスミッタと受信者を設定する必要があります。セット内容の機密性を保護する必要があります。送信されたセットを固定するためにTLSを使用する必要があります。ユースケースによっては、JWE [RFC7516]に記載されているように設定されているセットを暗号化する必要があります。イベント配信エンドポイントは、少なくともTLSバージョン1.2 [RFC5246]をサポートし、そのセキュリティ要件を満たす最新バージョンのTLSをサポートしている必要があります。このパブリケーションの時点でTLS 1.3 [RFC8446]。クライアントは、DNS-ID [RFC6125]および/またはDANE [RFC6698]を使用してTLS / SSLサーバー証明書チェックを実行する必要があります。 Set TransmitterがSet受信者のサーバー証明書と一致するように予想されるサービスIDをどのように決定するかは、このドキュメントの範囲外です。 「トランスポートレイヤセキュリティ(TLS)およびデータグラムトランスポートレイヤセキュリティ(DTLS)を安全に使用するための推奨事項(DTLS)」[RFC7525]の実装セキュリティ上の考慮事項に従う必要があります。

5.4. Denial of Service
5.4. サービス拒否

The SET Recipient may be vulnerable to a denial-of-service attack where a malicious party makes a high volume of requests containing invalid SETs, causing the endpoint to expend significant resources on cryptographic operations that are bound to fail. This may be mitigated by authenticating SET Transmitters with a mechanism such as mutual TLS. Rate-limiting problematic transmitters is also a possible means of mitigation.


5.5. Authenticating Persisted SETs
5.5. 永続化セットの認証

At the time of receipt, the SET Recipient can rely upon TLS mechanisms, HTTP authentication methods, and/or other context from the transmission request to authenticate the SET Transmitter and validate the authenticity of the SET. However, this context is typically unavailable to systems to which the SET Recipient forwards the SET, or to systems that retrieve the SET from storage. If the SET Recipient requires the ability to validate SET authenticity outside of the context of the transmission request, then the SET Recipient SHOULD ensure that such SETs have been signed in accordance with [RFC7515]. Needed context could also be stored with the SET and retrieved with it.


6. Privacy Considerations
6. プライバシーに関する考慮事項

SET Transmitters should attempt to deliver SETs that are targeted to the specific business and protocol needs of subscribers.


When sharing personally identifiable information or information that is otherwise considered confidential to affected users, SET Transmitters and Recipients MUST have the appropriate legal agreements and user consent or terms of service in place. Furthermore, data that needs confidentiality protection MUST be encrypted, at least with TLS and sometimes also using JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [RFC7516].

影響を受けるユーザーと機密と見なされる個人を特定できる情報や情報を共有する場合は、送信者と受信者を設定する必要があります。さらに、機密保護を必要とするデータは、少なくともTLSとともに暗号化され、時にJSON Web暗号化(JWE)[RFC7516]を使用する必要があります。

In some cases, subject identifiers themselves may be considered sensitive information, such that their inclusion within a SET may be considered a violation of privacy. SET Issuers and SET Transmitters should consider the ramifications of sharing a particular subject identifier with a SET Recipient (e.g., whether doing so could enable correlation and/or de-anonymization of data) and choose appropriate subject identifiers for their use cases.


7. IANA Considerations
7. IANAの考慮事項
7.1. Security Event Token Error Codes
7.1. セキュリティイベントトークンエラーコード

This document defines Security Event Token Error Codes, for which IANA has created and now maintains a new registry titled "Security Event Token Error Codes". Initial values for the "Security Event Token Error Codes" registry are defined in Table 1 and registered below. Future assignments are to be made through the Specification Required registration policy [RFC8126] and shall follow the template below.


Error Codes are intended to be interpreted by automated systems; therefore, they SHOULD identify classes of errors to which an automated system could respond in a meaningfully distinct way (e.g., by refreshing authentication credentials and retrying the request).


Error Code names are case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.


Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Experts includes determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing functionality, whether it is likely to be of general applicability or whether it is useful only for a single application, and whether the registration description is clear.


It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are able to represent the perspectives of different applications using this specification in order to enable broadly informed review of registration decisions. In cases where a registration decision could be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular expert, that expert should defer to the judgment of the other experts.


7.1.1. Registration Template
7.1.1. 登録テンプレート

Error Code The name of the Security Event Token Error Code, as described in Section 2.4. The name MUST be a case-sensitive ASCII string consisting only of letters, digits, and underscore; these are the characters whose codes fall within the inclusive ranges 0x30-39, 0x41-5A, 0x5F, and 0x61-7A.


Description A brief human-readable description of the Security Event Token Error Code.


Change Controller For error codes registered by the IETF or its working groups, list "IETF". For all other error codes, list the name of the party responsible for the registration. Contact information such as mailing address, email address, or phone number may also be provided.


Reference A reference to the document or documents that define the Security Event Token Error Code. The definition MUST specify the name and description of the error code and explain under what circumstances the error code may be used. URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of each document at no cost SHOULD be included.


7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
7.1.2. 初期レジストリの内容

Error Code: invalid_request Description: The request body cannot be parsed as a SET or the Event Payload within the SET does not conform to the event's definition. Change Controller: IETF Reference: Section 2.4 of RFC 8935

エラーコード:invalid_request説明:要求本文をセットとして解析することも、セット内のイベントペイロードはイベントの定義に準拠していません。変更コントローラー:IETFリファレンス:RFC 8935のセクション2.4

Error Code: invalid_key Description: One or more keys used to encrypt or sign the SET is invalid or otherwise unacceptable to the SET Recipient (expired, revoked, failed certificate validation, etc.). Change Controller: IETF Reference: Section 2.4 of RFC 8935

エラーコード:invalid_key説明:セットの暗号化または署名に使用される1つ以上のキーは無効です。そうでなければ、設定受信者(期限切れ、失効、失敗した証明書検証など)にはありません。変更コントローラー:IETFリファレンス:RFC 8935のセクション2.4

Error Code: invalid_issuer Description: The SET Issuer is invalid for the SET Recipient. Change Controller: IETF Reference: Section 2.4 of RFC 8935

エラーコード:invalid_issuer説明:Set Issueerが設定受信者に無効です。変更コントローラー:IETFリファレンス:RFC 8935のセクション2.4

Error Code: invalid_audience Description: The SET Audience does not correspond to the SET Recipient. Change Controller: IETF Reference: Section 2.4 of RFC 8935

エラーコード:invalid_audience説明:設定オーディエンスが設定受信者に対応していません。変更コントローラー:IETFリファレンス:RFC 8935のセクション2.4

Error Code: authentication_failed Description: The SET Recipient could not authenticate the SET Transmitter. Change Controller: IETF Reference: Section 2.4 of RFC 8935

エラーコード:authentication_failed説明:セット受信者はセット送信機を認証できませんでした。変更コントローラー:IETFリファレンス:RFC 8935のセクション2.4

Error Code: access_denied Description: The SET Transmitter is not authorized to transmit the SET to the SET Recipient. Change Controller: IETF Reference: Section 2.4 of RFC 8935

エラーコード:ACCESS_DENIED説明:セット送信機はセットをセット受信者に送信する権限がありません。変更コントローラー:IETFリファレンス:RFC 8935のセクション2.4

8. References
8. 参考文献
8.1. Normative References
8.1. 引用文献

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <>.

[RFC2119] BRADNER、S、「RFCSで使用するためのキーワード」、BCP 14、RFC 2119、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2119、1997年3月、<>。

[RFC2277] Alvestrand, H., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, DOI 10.17487/RFC2277, January 1998, <>.

[RFC2277] alvestrand、H.、「キャラクターセットと言語のIETFポリシー」、BCP 18、RFC 2277、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2277、1998年1月、<>。

[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000, <>.

[RFC2818] RESCORLA、E.、「HTTP over TLS」、RFC 2818、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2818、2000年5月、<>。

[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008, <>.

[RFC5246] Dierks、T.およびE. Rescorla、「トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLS)プロトコルバージョン1.2」、RFC 5246、DOI 10.17487 / RFC5246、2008年8月、< RFC5246>。

[RFC6125] Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509 (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March 2011, <>.

[RFC6125] Transport Layer Security(TLS)のコンテキストでのX.509(PKIX)証明書を使用したInternet Publicキーインフラストラクチャ内のインターネット公開鍵インフラストラクチャ内のドメインベースのアプリケーションサービスIDの表現と検証の表現と検証RFC 6125、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6125、2011年3月、<>。

[RFC6698] Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August 2012, <>.

[RFC6698] Hoffman、P.およびJ.Schlyter、「名前付きエンティティのDNSベース認証(DANE)トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLSA」、RFC 6698、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6698、2012年8月、<>。

[RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014, <>.

[RFC7230]フィールド、R.、ED。J.Reschke、ED。、「Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP / 1.1):メッセージ構文とルーティング」、RFC 7230、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7230、2014年6月、<>。

[RFC7231] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014, <>.

[RFC7231] Fielding、R.、Ed。J. Reschke、ED。、「Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP / 1.1):セマンティクスとコンテンツ」、RFC 7231、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7231、2014年6月、<>。

[RFC7515] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May 2015, <>.

[RFC7515] Jones、M.、Bradley、J.、およびN.Sakimura、「JSON Web Signature(JWS)」、RFC 7515、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7515、2015年5月、< info / rfc7515>。

[RFC7516] Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)", RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015, <>.

[RFC7516] Jones、M.およびJ.Hildebrand、「JSON Web暗号化(JWE)」、RFC 7516、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7516、2015年5月、<>。

[RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015, <>.

[RFC7519] Jones、M.、Bradley、J.、およびSAKIMURA、「JSON Webトークン(JWT)」、RFC 7519、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7519、2015年5月、< Info / RFC7519>。

[RFC7525] Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre, "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525, May 2015, <>.

[RFC7525] Sheffer、Y、Holz、R.およびP.Saint-Andre、「トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLS)およびデータグラムトランスポート層セキュリティ(DTLS)」、BCP 195、RFC 7525、DOI 10.17487/ RFC7525、2015年5月、<>。

[RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017, <>.

[RFC8126]綿、M.、Leiba、B.およびT.Narten、「RFCSのIANAに関する考察のためのガイドライン」、BCP 26、RFC 8126、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8126、2017年6月、<HTTPS:// / info / rfc8126>。

[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017, <>.

[RFC8174] Leiba、B、「RFC 2119キーワードの大文字の曖昧さ」、BCP 14、RFC 8174、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8174、2017年5月、<>。

[RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259, DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017, <>.

[RFC8259] Bray、T.、ED。、「JavaScriptオブジェクト表記(JSON)データ交換フォーマット」、STD 90、RFC 8259、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8259、2017年12月、< info / rfc8259>。

[RFC8417] Hunt, P., Ed., Jones, M., Denniss, W., and M. Ansari, "Security Event Token (SET)", RFC 8417, DOI 10.17487/RFC8417, July 2018, <>.

[RFC8417] Hunt、P.、Ed。、Jones、M.、Denniss、W.およびM.Ansari、「セキュリティイベントトークン(SET)」、RFC 8417、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8417、2018年7月、<>。

[RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, <>.

[RFC8446] RESCORLA、E.、「トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLS)プロトコルバージョン1.3」、RFC 8446、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8446、2018年8月、<>。

8.2. Informative References
8.2. 参考引用

[RFC7235] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication", RFC 7235, DOI 10.17487/RFC7235, June 2014, <>.

[RFC7235] Fielding、R.、Ed。J.Reschke、Ed。、「Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP / 1.1):認証」、RFC 7235、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7235、2014年6月、<>。

[RFC8936] Backman, A., Ed., Jones, M., Ed., Scurtescu, M., Ansari, M., and A. Nadalin, "Poll-Based Security Event Token (SET) Delivery Using HTTP", RFC 8936, DOI 10.17487/RFC8936, November 2020, <>.

[RFC8936] Backman、A。、ED。、Jones、M.、Ed。、Scurtescu、M.、Ansari、M.、およびA.Nadalin、「HTTPを使用したポーリングベースのセキュリティイベントトークン(SET)配信」、RFC8936、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8936、2020年11月、<>。

Appendix A. Unencrypted Transport Considerations

Earlier versions of this specification made the use of TLS optional and described security and privacy considerations resulting from use of unencrypted HTTP as the underlying transport. When the working group decided to mandate usage of HTTP over TLS, it also decided to preserve the description of these considerations in this non-normative appendix.


SETs may contain sensitive information that is considered Personally Identifiable Information (PII). In such cases, SET Transmitters and SET Recipients MUST protect the confidentiality of the SET contents. When TLS is not used, this means that the SET MUST be encrypted as described in JWE [RFC7516].

セットには、個人的に識別可能な情報(PII)と見なされる機密情報が含まれている可能性があります。そのような場合は、SETトランスミッタと受信者を設定する必要があります。セット内容の機密性を保護する必要があります。TLSが使用されていない場合、これはJWE [RFC7516]の説明に従って設定されている必要があることを意味します。

If SETs were allowed to be transmitted over unencrypted channels, some privacy-sensitive information about them might leak, even though the SETs themselves are encrypted. For instance, an attacker may be able to determine whether or not a SET was accepted and the reason for its rejection or may be able to derive information from being able to observe the size of the encrypted SET. (Note that even when TLS is utilized, some information leakage is still possible; message padding algorithms to prevent side channels remain an open research topic.)




The editors would like to thank the members of the SCIM Working Group, which began discussions of provisioning events starting with draft-hunt-scim-notify-00 in 2015. We would like to thank Phil Hunt and the other authors of draft-ietf-secevent-delivery-02, upon which this specification is based. We would like to thank the participants in the SecEvents Working Group for their contributions to this specification.

編集者たちは、2015年にdraft-hunt-scim-notify-00から始まるプロビジョニングイベントの議論を始めました。この仕様が基づいているSeceVent-Delivery-02。この仕様への貢献については、Secevents Working Groupの参加者に感謝します。

Additionally, we would like to thank the following individuals for their reviews of the specification: Joe Clarke, Roman Danyliw, Vijay Gurbani, Benjamin Kaduk, Erik Kline, Murray Kucherawy, Barry Leiba, Yaron Sheffer, Robert Sparks, Valery Smyslov, Éric Vyncke, and Robert Wilton.

さらに、仕様書のレビューに次の個人に感謝します.Joe Clarke、Roman Danyliw、Vijay Gurbani、Benjay Gurbani、Benjamin Kaduk、Erik Kline、Murry Kucherawy、Barry Leiba、Yarry Leiba、Robert Sparks、Valery Smyslov、Vyncke、そしてロバートウィルトン。

Authors' Addresses


Annabelle Backman (editor) Amazon

Annabelle Backman(編集)


Michael B. Jones (editor) Microsoft

Michael B. Jones(編集)Microsoft.


Marius Scurtescu Coinbase



Morteza Ansari Independent

Morteza Ansari独立しました


Anthony Nadalin Independent