Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         B. Laurie
Request for Comments: 9162                                    E. Messeri
Obsoletes: 6962                                                   Google
Category: Experimental                                      R. Stradling
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  Sectigo
                                                           December 2021

Certificate Transparency Version 2.0




This document describes version 2.0 of the Certificate Transparency (CT) protocol for publicly logging the existence of Transport Layer Security (TLS) server certificates as they are issued or observed, in a manner that allows anyone to audit certification authority (CA) activity and notice the issuance of suspect certificates as well as to audit the certificate logs themselves. The intent is that eventually clients would refuse to honor certificates that do not appear in a log, effectively forcing CAs to add all issued certificates to the logs.


This document obsoletes RFC 6962. It also specifies a new TLS extension that is used to send various CT log artifacts.

この文書はRFC 6962を廃止します。また、さまざまなCTログアーティファクトを送信するために使用される新しいTLS拡張機能も指定します。

Logs are network services that implement the protocol operations for submissions and queries that are defined in this document.


Status of This Memo


This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for examination, experimental implementation, and evaluation.


This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

この文書は、インターネットコミュニティの実験プロトコルを定義しています。この文書はインターネットエンジニアリングタスクフォース(IETF)の製品です。IETFコミュニティのコンセンサスを表します。それはパブリックレビューを受け、インターネットエンジニアリングステアリンググループ(IESG)による出版の承認を受けました。IESGによって承認されたすべての文書がすべてのレベルのインターネット規格の候補者であるわけではありません。RFC 7841のセクション2を参照してください。

Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at


Copyright Notice


Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

Copyright(C)2021 IETFの信頼と文書著者として識別された人。全著作権所有。

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents ( in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

この文書は、この文書の公開日に有効なIETF文書(に関するBCP 78およびIETF信頼の法的規定の対象となります。この文書に関してあなたの権利と制限を説明するので、これらの文書をよくレビューしてください。この文書から抽出されたコードコンポーネントには、信託法定規定のセクション4。

Table of Contents


   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Requirements Language
     1.2.  Data Structures
     1.3.  Major Differences from CT 1.0
   2.  Cryptographic Components
     2.1.  Merkle Trees
       2.1.1.  Definition of the Merkle Tree
       2.1.2.  Verifying a Tree Head Given Entries
       2.1.3.  Merkle Inclusion Proofs
       2.1.4.  Merkle Consistency Proofs
       2.1.5.  Example
     2.2.  Signatures
   3.  Submitters
     3.1.  Certificates
     3.2.  Precertificates
       3.2.1.  Binding Intent to Issue
   4.  Log Format and Operation
     4.1.  Log Parameters
     4.2.  Evaluating Submissions
       4.2.1.  Minimum Acceptance Criteria
       4.2.2.  Discretionary Acceptance Criteria
     4.3.  Log Entries
     4.4.  Log ID
     4.5.  TransItem Structure
     4.6.  Log Artifact Extensions
     4.7.  Merkle Tree Leaves
     4.8.  Signed Certificate Timestamp (SCT)
     4.9.  Merkle Tree Head
     4.10. Signed Tree Head (STH)
     4.11. Merkle Consistency Proofs
     4.12. Merkle Inclusion Proofs
     4.13. Shutting Down a Log
   5.  Log Client Messages
     5.1.  Submit Entry to Log
     5.2.  Retrieve Latest STH
     5.3.  Retrieve Merkle Consistency Proof between Two STHs
     5.4.  Retrieve Merkle Inclusion Proof from Log by Leaf Hash
     5.5.  Retrieve Merkle Inclusion Proof, STH, and Consistency Proof
           by Leaf Hash
     5.6.  Retrieve Entries and STH from Log
     5.7.  Retrieve Accepted Trust Anchors
   6.  TLS Servers
     6.1.  TLS Client Authentication
     6.2.  Multiple SCTs
     6.3.  TransItemList Structure
     6.4.  Presenting SCTs, Inclusions Proofs, and STHs
     6.5.  transparency_info TLS Extension
   7.  Certification Authorities
     7.1.  Transparency Information X.509v3 Extension
       7.1.1.  OCSP Response Extension
       7.1.2.  Certificate Extension
     7.2.  TLS Feature X.509v3 Extension
   8.  Clients
     8.1.  TLS Client
       8.1.1.  Receiving SCTs and Inclusion Proofs
       8.1.2.  Reconstructing the TBSCertificate
       8.1.3.  Validating SCTs
       8.1.4.  Fetching Inclusion Proofs
       8.1.5.  Validating Inclusion Proofs
       8.1.6.  Evaluating Compliance
     8.2.  Monitor
     8.3.  Auditing
   9.  Algorithm Agility
   10. IANA Considerations
     10.1.  Additions to Existing Registries
       10.1.1.  New Entry to the TLS ExtensionType Registry
       10.1.2.  URN Sub-namespace for TRANS (urn:ietf:params:trans)
     10.2.  New CT-Related Registries
       10.2.1.  Hash Algorithms
       10.2.2.  Signature Algorithms
       10.2.3.  VersionedTransTypes
       10.2.4.  Log Artifact Extensions
       10.2.5.  Log IDs
       10.2.6.  Error Types
     10.3.  OID Assignment
   11. Security Considerations
     11.1.  Misissued Certificates
     11.2.  Detection of Misissue
     11.3.  Misbehaving Logs
     11.4.  Multiple SCTs
     11.5.  Leakage of DNS Information
   12. References
     12.1.  Normative References
     12.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Supporting v1 and v2 Simultaneously (Informative)
   Appendix B.  An ASN.1 Module (Informative)
   Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction
1. はじめに

Certificate Transparency aims to mitigate the problem of misissued certificates by providing append-only logs of issued certificates. The logs do not themselves prevent misissuance, but they ensure that interested parties (particularly those named in certificates) can detect such misissuance. Note that this is a general mechanism that could be used for transparently logging any form of binary data, subject to some kind of inclusion criteria. In this document, we only describe its use for public TLS server certificates (i.e., where the inclusion criteria is a valid certificate issued by a public certification authority (CA)). A typical definition of "public" can be found in [CABBR].

証明書の透過性は、発行された証明書の追加ログを追加することによって誤った証明書の問題を軽減することを目的としています。ログは不安を防ぎませんが、興味のある人事(特に証明書に命名されたもの)がそのような不履行を検出できることを確認します。これは、ある種の包含基準を条件として、任意の形式のバイナリデータを透過的にログ記録するために使用できる一般的なメカニズムです。このドキュメントでは、Public TLSサーバー証明書(すなわち、包含基準が公開認証局(CA)によって発行された有効な証明書)の使用についてのみ説明します。「Public」の典型的な定義は[CABBR]にあります。

Each log contains certificate chains, which can be submitted by anyone. It is expected that public CAs will contribute all their newly issued certificates to one or more logs; however, certificate holders can also contribute their own certificate chains, as can third parties. In order to avoid logs being rendered useless by the submission of large numbers of spurious certificates, it is required that each chain ends with a trust anchor that is accepted by the log. A log may also limit the length of the chain it is willing to accept; such chains must also end with an acceptable trust anchor. When a chain is accepted by a log, a signed timestamp is returned, which can later be used to provide evidence to TLS clients that the chain has been submitted. TLS clients can thus require that all certificates they accept as valid are accompanied by signed timestamps.

各ログには証明書チェーンが含まれています。これは誰でも送信できます。Public CASは、新しく発行されたすべての証明書を1つ以上のログに貢献することが予想されます。ただし、証明書保有者は、第三者と同様に、自分の証明書チェーンを貢献することもできます。ログが多数のスプリアス証明書の提出によって無用にされるようにするために、各チェーンがログによって受け入れられた信頼アンカーで終わることが必要です。ログはまた、それが受け入れても構わないと思っているチェーンの長さを制限するかもしれません。そのようなチェーンも許容できる信託アンカーで終わらなければなりません。チェーンがログによって受け入れられると、署名されたタイムスタンプが返されます。これは後でチェーンが送信されたTLSクライアントに証拠を提供するために使用されます。したがって、TLSクライアントは、それらが有効で受け入れるすべての証明書が署名付きタイムスタンプを伴うことを必要とすることができます。

Those who are concerned about misissuance can monitor the logs, asking them regularly for all new entries, and can thus check whether domains for which they are responsible have had certificates issued that they did not expect. What they do with this information, particularly when they find that a misissuance has happened, is beyond the scope of this document. However, broadly speaking, they can invoke existing business mechanisms for dealing with misissued certificates, such as working with the CA to get the certificate revoked or with maintainers of trust anchor lists to get the CA removed. Of course, anyone who wants can monitor the logs and, if they believe a certificate is incorrectly issued, take action as they see fit.


Similarly, those who have seen signed timestamps from a particular log can later demand a proof of inclusion from that log. If the log is unable to provide this (or, indeed, if the corresponding certificate is absent from monitors' copies of that log), that is evidence of the incorrect operation of the log. The checking operation is asynchronous to allow clients to proceed without delay, despite possible issues, such as network connectivity and the vagaries of firewalls.


The append-only property of each log is achieved using Merkle Trees, which can be used to efficiently prove that any particular instance of the log is a superset of any particular previous instance and to efficiently detect various misbehaviors of the log (e.g., issuing a signed timestamp for a certificate that is not subsequently logged).


The log auditing mechanisms described in this document can be circumvented by a misbehaving log that shows different, inconsistent views of itself to different clients. Therefore, it is necessary to treat each log as a trusted third party. While mechanisms are being developed to address these shortcomings and thereby avoid the need to blindly trust logs, such mechanisms are outside the scope of this document.


1.1. Requirements Language
1.1. 要件言語

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

この文書のキーワード "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", および "OPTIONAL" はBCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174]で説明されているように、すべて大文字の場合にのみ解釈されます。

1.2. Data Structures
1.2. データ構造

Data structures are defined and encoded according to the conventions laid out in Section 3 of [RFC8446].


This document uses object identifiers (OIDs) to identify Log IDs (see Section 4.4), the precertificate Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) eContentType (see Section 3.2), X.509v3 extensions in certificates (see Section 7.1.2), and Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) responses (see Section 7.1.1). The OIDs are defined in an arc that was selected due to its short encoding.

このドキュメントでは、オブジェクト識別子(OID)を使用してログID(セクション4.4を参照)、Precetificate Cryptographic Message Syntax(CMS)EcontentateType(セクション3.2)、証明書のX.509v3拡張(セクション7.1.2参照)、およびオンライン証明書を参照)ステータスプロトコル(OCSP)応答(セクション7.1.1を参照)。OIDは、その短い符号化のために選択されたアークで定義されています。

1.3. Major Differences from CT 1.0
1.3. CT 1.0との主な違い

This document revises and obsoletes the CT 1.0 protocol [RFC6962], drawing on insights gained from CT 1.0 deployments and on feedback from the community. The major changes are:

この文書はCT 1.0プロトコル[RFC6962]、CT 1.0の展開から得られた洞察、およびコミュニティからのフィードバックに描いたCT 1.0プロトコル[RFC6962]を修正して廃止します。主な変更点は次のとおりです。

* Hash and signature algorithm agility: Permitted algorithms are now specified in IANA registries.

* ハッシュとシグネチャアルゴリズムの敏捷性:許可されたアルゴリズムはIANAレジストリで指定されています。

* Precertificate format: Precertificates are now CMS objects rather than X.509 certificates, which avoids violating the certificate serial number uniqueness requirement in Section of [RFC5280].

* Prectificate Format:Prectificatesは現在、X.509証明書ではなくCMSオブジェクトになりました。

* Removal of precertificate signing certificates and the precertificate poison extension: The change of precertificate format means that these are no longer needed.

* 有限号署名証明書の除去と予備停止停止延長:省庁形式の変化は、これらが不要になったことを意味します。

* Logs IDs: Each log is now identified by an OID rather than by the hash of its public key. OID allocations are available from an IANA registry.

* ログID:各ログは公開鍵のハッシュではなくOIDによって識別されるようになりました。OIDの割り当てはIANAレジストリから入手できます。

* TransItem structure: This new data structure is used to encapsulate most types of CT data. A TransItemList, consisting of one or more TransItem structures, can be used anywhere that SignedCertificateTimestampList was used in [RFC6962].

* Transitem構造:この新しいデータ構造は、ほとんどのタイプのCTデータをカプセル化するために使用されます。1つまたは複数のトランジティム構造からなるトランジスタリストは、SignedCertificateTemestamplistが[RFC6962]で使用された場所に使用できます。

* Merkle Tree leaves: The MerkleTreeLeaf structure has been replaced by the TransItem structure, which eases extensibility and simplifies the leaf structure by removing one layer of abstraction.

* Merkleツリーの葉:MerkletreeLeaf構造体はTransitem構造体に置き換えられました。

* Unified leaf format: The structure for both certificate and precertificate entries now includes only the TBSCertificate (whereas certificate entries in [RFC6962] included the entire certificate).

* Unified Leafフォーマット:証明書とPrectificateエントリの両方の構造には、TBSCertificateのみが含まれています([RFC6962]の証明書エントリは証明書全体を含んでいます)。

* Log artifact extensions: These are now typed and managed by an IANA registry, and they can now appear not only in Signed Certificate Timestamps (SCTs) but also in Signed Tree Heads (STHs).

* Log Artifact拡張機能:これらはIANAレジストリによって入力され管理されており、署名された証明書タイムスタンプ(SCT)だけでなく署名付きツリーヘッド(STHS)にも表示されるようになりました。

* API outputs: Complete TransItem structures are returned rather than the constituent parts of each structure.

* API出力:各構造の構成部分ではなく、完全なTransitem構造が返されます。

* get-all-by-hash: This is a new client API for obtaining an inclusion proof and the corresponding consistency proof at the same time.

* get-all by-hash:これは、包含証明と対応する一貫性証明を同時に取得するための新しいクライアントAPIです。

* submit-entry: This is a new client API, replacing add-chain and add-pre-chain.

* submit-entry:これは新しいクライアントAPIであり、追加チェーンと追加プレチェーンを置き換えます。

* Presenting SCTs with proofs: TLS servers may present SCTs together with the corresponding inclusion proofs, using any of the mechanisms that [RFC6962] defined for presenting SCTs only. (Presenting SCTs only is still supported).

* PROVSを使用してSCTを提示する:TLSサーバは、SCTSのみを提示するために定義された[RFC6962]が定義されたメカニズムのいずれかを使用して、対応する包含プルーフと一緒にSCTを提示することができる。(SCTを提示するだけでもサポートされています)。

* CT TLS extension: The signed_certificate_timestamp TLS extension has been replaced by the transparency_info TLS extension.

* CT TLS拡張子:signed_certificate_timestamp TLS拡張子は、透明度_info TLS拡張子に置き換えられました。

* Verification algorithms: Detailed algorithms for verifying inclusion proofs, for verifying consistency between two STHs, and for verifying a root hash given a complete list of the relevant leaf input entries have been added.

* 検証アルゴリズム:2つのSTH間の一貫性を検証するための、および関連するリーフ入力エントリの完全なリストが与えられたことを考慮して、包含証明を検証するための詳細なアルゴリズムが追加されています。

* Extensive clarifications and editorial work.

* 徹底的な説明と編集作業。

2. Cryptographic Components
2. 暗号コンポーネント
2.1. Merkle Trees
2.1. メルクルツリー

A full description of the Merkle Tree is beyond the scope of this document. Briefly, it is a binary tree where each non-leaf node is a hash of its children. For CT, the number of children is at most two. Additional information can be found in the Introduction and Reference sections of [RFC8391].


2.1.1. Definition of the Merkle Tree
2.1.1. メルクルツリーの定義
   The log uses a binary Merkle Tree for efficient auditing.  The hash
   algorithm used is one of the log's parameters (see Section 4.1).
   This document establishes a registry of acceptable hash algorithms
   (see Section 10.2.1).  Throughout this document, the hash algorithm
   in use is referred to as HASH and the size of its output in bytes is
   referred to as HASH_SIZE.  The input to the Merkle Tree Hash is a
   list of data entries; these entries will be hashed to form the leaves
   of the Merkle Tree.  The output is a single HASH_SIZE Merkle Tree
   Hash.  Given an ordered list of n inputs, D_n = {d[0], d[1], ...,
   d[n-1]}, the Merkle Tree Hash (MTH) is thus defined as follows:

The hash of an empty list is the hash of an empty string:


MTH({}) = HASH().

MTH({})= HASH()。

The hash of a list with one entry (also known as a leaf hash) is:


MTH({d[0]}) = HASH(0x00 || d[0]).

MTH({d [0]})=ハッシュ(0x00 || d [0])。

For n > 1, let k be the largest power of two smaller than n (i.e., k < n <= 2k). The Merkle Tree Hash of an n-element list D_n is then defined recursively as:

n> 1の場合、kをnよりも小さい最大の電力(すなわち、k <n≦2k)である。n要素リストD_nのメルクルツリーハッシュは、次のように再帰的に定義されます。

MTH(D_n) = HASH(0x01 || MTH(D[0:k]) || MTH(D[k:n])),

MTH(D_N)=ハッシュ(0x01 || Mth(d [0:k])|| MTH(D [K:N]))



* || denotes concatenation

* ||.連結を表します

* : denotes concatenation of lists

* :リストの連結を表します

* D[k1:k2] = D'_(k2-k1) denotes the list {d'[0] = d[k1], d'[1] = d[k1+1], ..., d'[k2-k1-1] = d[k2-1]} of length (k2 - k1).

* d [k 1:k 2] = d '_(k 2-k 1)はリスト{d' [0] = d [k 1]、d '[1] = d [K 1 1]、...、D' [K 2-K1-1 = D [K2-1]}長さ(K2 - K1)。

Note that the hash calculations for leaves and nodes differ; this domain separation is required to give second preimage resistance.


Note that we do not require the length of the input list to be a power of two. The resulting Merkle Tree may thus not be balanced; however, its shape is uniquely determined by the number of leaves. (Note: This Merkle Tree is essentially the same as the history tree proposed by [CrosbyWallach], except our definition handles non-full trees differently.)


2.1.2. Verifying a Tree Head Given Entries
2.1.2. エントリを与えられたツリーヘッドを検証します

When a client has a complete list of entries from 0 up to tree_size - 1 and wishes to verify this list against a tree head root_hash returned by the log for the same tree_size, the following algorithm may be used:

クライアントが0から0へのエントリの完全なリストが0からTREE_SIZE - 1と同じツリーのroot_hashに返され、同じtree_sizeのログから返されたツリーroot_hashに対してこのリストを検証したい場合は、次のアルゴリズムを使用できます。

1. Set stack to an empty stack.

1. スタックを空のスタックに設定します。

2. For each i from 0 up to tree_size - 1:

2. 各iの場合は0からtree_size - 1:1:

a. Push HASH(0x00 || entries[i]) to stack.

a. ハッシュ(0x00 ||エントリ[i])をスタックに押します。

b. Set merge_count to the lowest value (0 included) such that LSB(i >> merge_count) is not set, where LSB means the least significant bit. In other words, set merge_count to the number of consecutive 1s found starting at the least significant bit of i.

b. LSB(i >> merge_count)が設定されていないようにmerge_countを最も低い値(0含まれています)に設定します。ここで、LSBは最下位ビットを意味します。言い換えれば、merge_countを、Iの最下位ビットから始めて見つかった連続した1Sの数に設定します。

c. Repeat merge_count times:

c. merge_count時間を繰り返します。

i. Pop right from stack.

i. スタックからポップします。

ii. Pop left from stack.


iii. Push HASH(0x01 || left || right) to stack.

III。ハッシュ(0x01 || left ||右)をスタックに押します。

3. If there is more than one element in the stack, repeat the same merge procedure (the sub-items of Step 2(c) above) until only a single element remains.

3. スタック内に複数の要素がある場合は、単一の要素のみが残るまで、同じマージ手順(上記のステップ2(c)のサブアイテム)を繰り返します。

4. The remaining element in stack is the Merkle Tree Hash for the given tree_size and should be compared by equality against the supplied root_hash.

4. スタック内の残りの要素は、与えられたtree_sizeのためのメルクルツリーハッシュであり、指定されたroot_hashに対する平等と比較されるべきです。

2.1.3. Merkle Inclusion Proofs
2.1.3. メルクル包含証明

A Merkle inclusion proof for a leaf in a Merkle Tree is the shortest list of additional nodes in the Merkle Tree required to compute the Merkle Tree Hash for that tree. Each node in the tree is either a leaf node or is computed from the two nodes immediately below it (i.e., towards the leaves). At each step up the tree (towards the root), a node from the inclusion proof is combined with the node computed so far. In other words, the inclusion proof consists of the list of missing nodes required to compute the nodes leading from a leaf to the root of the tree. If the root computed from the inclusion proof matches the true root, then the inclusion proof proves that the leaf exists in the tree.

メルクルツリーの葉のためのメルクル包含証拠は、そのツリーのメルクルツリーハッシュを計算するのに必要なメルクルツリー内の追加ノードの最短リストです。ツリー内の各ノードは、リーフノードのいずれかで、またはその直下(すなわち葉に向かって)2つのノードから計算されます。ツリーを(ルートに向かって)ステップアップすると、包含証明からのノードがこれまでに計算されたノードと組み合わされます。言い換えれば、包含プルーフは、リーフからツリーのルートに先行するノードを計算するのに必要な欠落ノードのリストからなる。包含プルーフから計算されたルートが真の根に一致する場合、包含証は葉が木に存在することを証明します。 Generating an Inclusion Proof 包含証明の生成
   Given an ordered list of n inputs to the tree, D_n = {d[0], d[1],
   ..., d[n-1]}, the Merkle inclusion proof PATH(m, D_n) for the (m+1)th
   input d[m], 0 <= m < n, is defined as follows:
   The proof for the single leaf in a tree with a one-element input list
   D[1] = {d[0]} is empty:
   PATH(0, {d[0]}) = {}

For n > 1, let k be the largest power of two smaller than n. The proof for the (m+1)th element d[m] in a list of n > m elements is then defined recursively as:

n> 1の場合、kをNよりも2倍の最大の電力とする。n> m個の要素のリストにおける(m 1)番目の要素d [m]の証明は、次のように再帰的に定義される。

   PATH(m, D_n) = PATH(m, D[0:k]) : MTH(D[k:n]) for m < k; and

PATH(m, D_n) = PATH(m - k, D[k:n]) : MTH(D[0:k]) for m >= k,

経路(m、d_n)=経路(m - k、d [k:n]):m> = kのMth(d [0:k])。

The : operator and D[k1:k2] are defined the same as in Section 2.1.1.

:演算子とd [k1:k2]は、セクション2.1.1と同じ定義されています。 Verifying an Inclusion Proof 包含証明の検証

When a client has received an inclusion proof (e.g., in a TransItem of type inclusion_proof_v2) and wishes to verify inclusion of an input hash for a given tree_size and root_hash, the following algorithm may be used to prove the hash was included in the root_hash:


1. Compare leaf_index from the inclusion_proof_v2 structure against tree_size. If leaf_index is greater than or equal to tree_size, then fail the proof verification.

1. inclusion_proof_v2構造からLeaf_Indexをtree_sizeと比較します。leaf_indexがtree_size以上の場合は、証明検証に失敗します。

2. Set fn to leaf_index and sn to tree_size - 1.


3. Set r to hash.

3. ハッシュにRを設定してください。

4. For each value p in the inclusion_path array:

4. inclusion_path配列の各値Pについて。

a. If sn is 0, then stop the iteration and fail the proof verification.

a. SNが0の場合は、反復を停止し、証明検証に失敗します。

b. If LSB(fn) is set, or if fn is equal to sn, then:

b. LSB(FN)が設定されている場合、またはFNがSNに等しい場合は、次のようになります。

i. Set r to HASH(0x01 || p || r).

i. rをハッシュ(0x01 || p || r)に設定します。

ii. If LSB(fn) is not set, then right-shift both fn and sn equally until either LSB(fn) is set or fn is 0.




i. Set r to HASH(0x01 || r || p).

i. ハッシュ(0x01 || R || p)に設定します。

c. Finally, right-shift both fn and sn one time.

c. 最後に、FnとSnの両方を右シフトします。

5. Compare sn to 0. Compare r against the root_hash. If sn is equal to 0 and r and the root_hash are equal, then the log has proven the inclusion of hash. Otherwise, fail the proof verification.

5. SNを0に比較するROOT_HASHに対してRを比較します。Snが0とRに等しく、root_hashが等しい場合、ログはハッシュを含めることを証明しました。それ以外の場合は、証明検証に失敗します。

2.1.4. Merkle Consistency Proofs
2.1.4. メルクル一貫性証明

Merkle consistency proofs prove the append-only property of the tree. A Merkle consistency proof for a Merkle Tree Hash MTH(D_n) and a previously advertised hash MTH(D[0:m]) of the first m leaves, m <= n, is the list of nodes in the Merkle Tree required to verify that the first m inputs D[0:m] are equal in both trees. Thus, a consistency proof must contain a set of intermediate nodes (i.e., commitments to inputs) sufficient to verify MTH(D_n), such that (a subset of) the same nodes can be used to verify MTH(D[0:m]). We define an algorithm that outputs the (unique) minimal consistency proof.

Merkle整合性証明ツリーの追加専用プロパティを証明します。MerkleツリーハッシュMTH(D_N)と前回広告されたハッシュMTH(D_N)と前回広告されたハッシュMTH(D [0:M])は、M <= Nの場合、検証に必要なメルクルツリー内のノードのリストです。最初のM入力D [0:M]は両方の木で等しいことです。したがって、整合性証明は、MTH(D_N)を検証するのに十分な一組の中間ノード(すなわち、)を検証するのに十分な一組の中間ノードを含みなければならない(D_n)、同じノードを使用してMTHを検証することができる(D [0:M])。)。(一意の)最小限の一貫性証明を出力するアルゴリズムを定義します。 Generating a Consistency Proof 一貫性証明の生成
   Given an ordered list of n inputs to the tree, D_n = {d[0], d[1],
   ..., d[n-1]}, the Merkle consistency proof PROOF(m, D_n) for a
   previous Merkle Tree Hash MTH(D[0:m]), 0 < m < n, is defined as:
   PROOF(m, D_n) = SUBPROOF(m, D_n, true)

In SUBPROOF, the boolean value represents whether the subtree created from D[0:m] is a complete subtree of the Merkle Tree created from D_n and, consequently, whether the subtree Merkle Tree Hash MTH(D[0:m]) is known. The initial call to SUBPROOF sets this to be true, and SUBPROOF is then defined as follows:

サブプロファイルブールでは、ブール値はd [0:m]から作成されたサブツリーがD_nから作成されたメルクルツリーの完全なサブツリーであるかどうかを表し、その結果、サブツリーメルクルツリーハッシュMth(d [0:m])が知られているかどうか。サブプリファーの最初の呼び出しはこれをtrueになるように設定し、次のように定義されます。

The subproof for m = n is empty if m is the value for which PROOF was originally requested (meaning that the subtree created from D[0:m] is a complete subtree of the Merkle Tree created from the original D_n for which PROOF was requested and the subtree Merkle Tree Hash MTH(D[0:m]) is known):

m = nの場合、m = nは空の場合、mが最初に要求された値の値である場合(d [0:m]から作成されたサブツリーが、証明が要求された元のD_nから作成されたメルクルツリーの完全なサブツリーであることを意味します。そして、サブツリーメルクルツリーハッシュMTH(D [0:M])が知られている)

   SUBPROOF(m, D_m, true) = {}

Otherwise, the subproof for m = n is the Merkle Tree Hash committing inputs D[0:m]:

さもなければ、m = nのためのサブプラグはメルクルツリーハッシュコミット入力d [0:m]:

   SUBPROOF(m, D_m, false) = {MTH(D_m)}

For m < n, let k be the largest power of two smaller than n. The subproof is then defined recursively, using the appropriate step below:

M <Nの場合、kをNよりも2倍の最大の電力であることを許容します。以下の適切なステップを使用して、サブプラモーを再帰的に定義します。

If m <= k, the right subtree entries D[k:n] only exist in the current tree. We prove that the left subtree entries D[0:k] are consistent and add a commitment to D[k:n]:

m <= kの場合、右のサブツリーエントリd [k:n]は現在のツリーにのみ存在します。左のサブツリーエントリD [0:k]が一貫しており、D [K:N]にコミットメントを追加することを証明します。

   SUBPROOF(m, D_n, b) = SUBPROOF(m, D[0:k], b) : MTH(D[k:n])

If m > k, the left subtree entries D[0:k] are identical in both trees. We prove that the right subtree entries D[k:n] are consistent and add a commitment to D[0:k]:

m> kの場合、左のサブツリーエントリd [0:k]は両方の木で同じです。右のサブツリーのエントリーD [k:n]が一貫しており、Dへのコミットメントを追加することを証明しました[0:k]:

   SUBPROOF(m, D_n, b) = SUBPROOF(m - k, D[k:n], false) : MTH(D[0:k])

The number of nodes in the resulting proof is bounded above by ceil(log2(n)) + 1.

結果として生じる証明におけるノード数は、CEIL(Log 2(N))1で上に限界付けされています。

The : operator and D[k1:k2] are defined the same as in Section 2.1.1.

:演算子とd [k1:k2]は、セクション2.1.1と同じ定義されています。 Verifying Consistency between Two Tree Heads 2つのツリーヘッド間の一貫性を検証する

When a client has a tree head first_hash for tree size first, has a tree head second_hash for tree size second where 0 < first < second, and has received a consistency proof between the two (e.g., in a TransItem of type consistency_proof_v2), the following algorithm may be used to verify the consistency proof:

クライアントがツリーサイズの最初にツリーヘッドFIRST_HASHを持っている場合、ツリーサイズ2番目のツリーヘッドSecond_Hashがあり、0 <最初の<Second、および2つの間に(例えば、Type Consportency_proof_v2のトランジティム)の間で整合性の証明を受信しました。次のアルゴリズムを使用して、整合性証明を検証することができます。

1. If consistency_path is an empty array, stop and fail the proof verification.

1. constanciency_pathが空の配列である場合は、証明検証を停止して失敗します。

2. If first is an exact power of 2, then prepend first_hash to the consistency_path array.

2. 最初のものが2の正確な電力である場合は、upsistency_path配列にfirst_hashを追加します。

3. Set fn to first - 1 and sn to second - 1.

3. FNをFINST-1とSNにSNに設定します。

4. If LSB(fn) is set, then right-shift both fn and sn equally until LSB(fn) is not set.

4. LSB(FN)が設定されている場合は、LSB(FN)が設定されないまでFNとSNの両方を等しく右シフトします。

5. Set both fr and sr to the first value in the consistency_path array.

5. FRとSRの両方をSPRESSCENCE_PATH配列の最初の値に設定します。

6. For each subsequent value c in the consistency_path array:

6. Consplance_Path配列の後続の各値Cについて。

a. If sn is 0, then stop the iteration and fail the proof verification.

a. SNが0の場合は、反復を停止し、証明検証に失敗します。

b. If LSB(fn) is set, or if fn is equal to sn, then:

b. LSB(FN)が設定されている場合、またはFNがSNに等しい場合は、次のようになります。

i. Set fr to HASH(0x01 || c || fr).

i. FRをハッシュ(0x01 || C || FR)に設定します。

ii. Set sr to HASH(0x01 || c || sr).

ii。SRをハッシュ(0x01 || C || SR)に設定します。

iii. If LSB(fn) is not set, then right-shift both fn and sn equally until either LSB(fn) is set or fn is 0.




i. Set sr to HASH(0x01 || sr || c).

i. SRをハッシュ(0x01 || SR || C)に設定します。

c. Finally, right-shift both fn and sn one time.

c. 最後に、FnとSnの両方を右シフトします。

7. After completing iterating through the consistency_path array as described above, verify that the fr calculated is equal to the first_hash supplied, that the sr calculated is equal to the second_hash supplied, and that sn is 0.

7. 上述のように整合性を繰り返し終了した後、計算されたFRが供給されたfirst_hashと等しいことを確認し、計算されたSRは供給された第2_hashに等しく、SNは0であることを確認する。

2.1.5. Example
2.1.5. 例

The following is a binary Merkle Tree with 7 leaves:


              /    \
             /      \
            /        \
           /          \
          /            \
         k              l
        / \            / \
       /   \          /   \
      /     \        /     \
     g       h      i      j
    / \     / \    / \     |
    a b     c d    e f     d6
    | |     | |    | |
   d0 d1   d2 d3  d4 d5

The inclusion proof for d0 is [b, h, l].


The inclusion proof for d3 is [c, g, l].


The inclusion proof for d4 is [f, j, k].


The inclusion proof for d6 is [i, k].


The same tree, built incrementally in four steps:


       hash0          hash1=k
       / \              /  \
      /   \            /    \
     /     \          /      \
     g      c         g       h
    / \     |        / \     / \
    a b     d2       a b     c d
    | |              | |     | |
   d0 d1            d0 d1   d2 d3
             hash2                    hash
             /  \                    /    \
            /    \                  /      \
           /      \                /        \
          /        \              /          \
         /          \            /            \
        k            i          k              l
       / \          / \        / \            / \
      /   \         e f       /   \          /   \
     /     \        | |      /     \        /     \
    g       h      d4 d5    g       h      i      j
   / \     / \             / \     / \    / \     |
   a b     c d             a b     c d    e f     d6
   | |     | |             | |     | |    | |
   d0 d1   d2 d3           d0 d1   d2 d3  d4 d5
   The consistency proof between hash0 and hash is PROOF(3, D[7]) = [c,
   d, g, l].  Non-leaf nodes c, g are used to verify hash0, and non-leaf
   nodes d, l are additionally used to show hash is consistent with
   The consistency proof between hash1 and hash is PROOF(4, D[7]) = [l].
   hash can be verified using hash1=k and l.
   The consistency proof between hash2 and hash is PROOF(6, D[7]) = [i,
   j, k].  Non-leaf nodes k, i are used to verify hash2, and non-leaf
   node j is additionally used to show hash is consistent with hash2.
2.2. Signatures
2.2. 署名

When signing data structures, a log MUST use one of the signature algorithms from the IANA "Signature Algorithms" registry, described in Section 10.2.2.

データ構造に署名するとき、ログは、10.2.2項で説明されているIANA "Signature Algorithms"レジストリの1つの署名アルゴリズムを使用する必要があります。

3. Submitters
3. 提出者

Submitters submit certificates or preannouncements of certificates prior to issuance (precertificates) to logs for public auditing, as described below. In order to enable attribution of each logged certificate or precertificate to its issuer, each submission MUST be accompanied by all additional certificates required to verify the chain up to an accepted trust anchor (Section 5.7). The trust anchor (a root or intermediate CA certificate) MAY be omitted from the submission.


If a log accepts a submission, it will return a Signed Certificate Timestamp (SCT) (see Section 4.8). The submitter SHOULD validate the returned SCT, as described in Section 8.1, if they understand its format and they intend to use it directly in a TLS handshake or to construct a certificate. If the submitter does not need the SCT (for example, the certificate is being submitted simply to make it available in the log), it MAY validate the SCT.


3.1. Certificates
3.1. 証明書

Any entity can submit a certificate (Section 5.1) to a log. Since it is anticipated that TLS clients will reject certificates that are not logged, it is expected that certificate issuers and subjects will be strongly motivated to submit them.


3.2. Precertificates
3.2. prec prec

CAs may preannounce a certificate prior to issuance by submitting a precertificate (Section 5.1) that the log can use to create an entry that will be valid against the issued certificate. The CA MAY incorporate the returned SCT in the issued certificate. One example of where the returned SCT is not incorporated in the issued certificate is when a CA sends the precertificate to multiple logs but only incorporates the SCTs that are returned first.


A precertificate is a CMS [RFC5652] signed-data object that conforms to the following profile:

Prectificateは、次のプロファイルに準拠したCMS [RFC5652]署名付きデータオブジェクトです。

* It MUST be DER encoded, as described in [X690].

* [X690]の説明に従って、それは符号化されている必要があります。

* SignedData.version MUST be v3(3).

* signedData.versionはv3(3)でなければなりません。

* SignedData.digestAlgorithms MUST be the same as the SignerInfo.digestAlgorithm OID value (see below).

* SignedData.DigestAlgorithmsはsignerInfo.DigestAlgorithm OID値と同じでなければなりません(下記参照)。

* SignedData.encapContentInfo:

* signedata.encapcontentInfo:

- eContentType MUST be the OID

- EcontentTypeはOIDでなければなりません。

- eContent MUST contain a TBSCertificate [RFC5280] that will be identical to the TBSCertificate in the issued certificate, except that the Transparency Information (Section 7.1) extension MUST be omitted.

- Econtentは、透明度情報(セクション7.1)拡張子を省略しなければならないことを除いて、発行された証明書のTBSCertificateと同じになるTBSCertificate [RFC5280]を含める必要があります。

* SignedData.certificates MUST be omitted.

* signedData.認証率は省略されなければなりません。

* SignedData.crls MUST be omitted.

* signedata.crlsは省略する必要があります。

* SignedData.signerInfos MUST contain one SignerInfo:

* SignedData.SignerInfosには、1つの署名者内閣が含まれている必要があります。

- version MUST be v3(3).

- バージョンはv3(3)でなければなりません。

- sid MUST use the subjectKeyIdentifier option.

- SIDはSubjectKeyIdentifierオプションを使用する必要があります。

- digestAlgorithm MUST be one of the hash algorithm OIDs listed in the IANA "Hash Algorithms" registry, described in Section 10.2.1.

- DigestAlgorithmは、10.2.1項で説明されているIANA "HASH Algorithms"レジストリにリストされているハッシュアルゴリズムOIDの1つです。

- signedAttrs MUST be present and MUST contain two attributes:

- signedattrsが存在する必要があり、2つの属性を含める必要があります。

o a content-type attribute whose value is the same as SignedData.encapContentInfo.eContentType and

o 値がsignedData.encapcontentinfo.econtentTypeと同じであるcontent-type属性

o a message-digest attribute whose value is the message digest of SignedData.encapContentInfo.eContent.

o 値がsignedData.encapcontentInfo.epeContentのメッセージダイジェストのメッセージダイジェスト属性。

- signatureAlgorithm MUST be the same OID as TBSCertificate.signature.

- SignatureAlgorithmはTBSCertificate.ignatureと同じOIDでなければなりません。

- signature MUST be from the same (root or intermediate) CA that intends to issue the corresponding certificate (see Section 3.2.1).

- 署名は、対応する証明書を発行する予定の同じ(rootまたは中間)CAからでなければなりません(セクション3.2.1を参照)。

- unsignedAttrs MUST be omitted.

- UnsignedAttrsは省略する必要があります。

SignerInfo.signedAttrs is included in the message digest calculation process (see Section 5.4 of [RFC5652]), which ensures that the SignerInfo.signature value will not be a valid X.509v3 signature that could be used in conjunction with the TBSCertificate (from SignedData.encapContentInfo.eContent) to construct a valid certificate.


3.2.1. Binding Intent to Issue
3.2.1. 発行する意図を結ぶ

Under normal circumstances, there will be a short delay between precertificate submission and issuance of the corresponding certificate. Longer delays are to be expected occasionally (e.g., due to log server downtime); in some cases, the CA might not actually issue the corresponding certificate. Nevertheless, a precertificate's signature indicates the CA's binding intent to issue the corresponding certificate, which means that:


* Misissuance of a precertificate is considered equivalent to misissuance of the corresponding certificate. The CA should expect to be held accountable, even if the corresponding certificate has not actually been issued.

* 受入人の不正行為は、対応する証明書の不正行為と同等と考えられています。対応する証明書が実際に発行されていない場合でも、CAは責任を負うことを期待する必要があります。

* Upon observing a precertificate, a client can reasonably presume that the corresponding certificate has been issued. A client may wish to obtain status information (e.g., by using the Online Certificate Status Protocol [RFC6960] or by checking a Certificate Revocation List [RFC5280]) about a certificate that is presumed to exist, especially if there is evidence or suspicion that the corresponding precertificate was misissued.

* 受精具を観察すると、クライアントは対応する証明書が発行されたと合理的に推測することができます。クライアントは、特に証拠や疑いがある場合に、対応する受精物が誤解された。

* TLS clients may have policies that require CAs to be able to revoke and to provide certificate status services for each certificate that is presumed to exist based on the existence of a corresponding precertificate.

* TLSクライアントには、対応する事務派の存在に基づいて存在するように推定される推定される各証明書の証明書ステータスサービスを取り消すことができるようにCASを必要とするポリシーがある可能性があります。

4. Log Format and Operation
4. ログフォーマットと操作

A log is a single, append-only Merkle Tree of submitted certificate and precertificate entries.


When it receives and accepts a valid submission, the log MUST return an SCT that corresponds to the submitted certificate or precertificate. If the log has previously seen this valid submission, it SHOULD return the same SCT as it returned before, as discussed in Section 11.3. If different SCTs are produced for the same submission, multiple log entries will have to be created, one for each SCT (as the timestamp is a part of the leaf structure). Note that if a certificate was previously logged as a precertificate, then the precertificate's SCT of type precert_sct_v2 would not be appropriate; instead, a fresh SCT of type x509_sct_v2 should be generated.


An SCT is the log's promise to append to its Merkle Tree an entry for the accepted submission. Upon producing an SCT, the log MUST fulfill this promise by performing the following actions within a fixed amount of time known as the Maximum Merge Delay (MMD), which is one of the log's parameters (see Section 4.1):


* Allocate a tree index to the entry representing the accepted submission.

* 受け入れられた送信を表すエントリにツリーインデックスを割り当てます。

* Calculate the root of the tree.

* ツリーのルートを計算します。

* Sign the root of the tree (see Section 4.10).

* ツリーのルートに署名します(セクション4.10を参照)。

The log may append multiple entries before signing the root of the tree.


Log operators SHOULD NOT impose any conditions on retrieving or sharing data from the log.


4.1. Log Parameters
4.1. ログパラメータ

A log is defined by a collection of immutable parameters, which are used by clients to communicate with the log and to verify log artifacts. Except for the Final STH, each of these parameters MUST be established before the log operator begins to operate the log.


Base URL: The prefix used to construct URLs [RFC3986] for client messages (see Section 5). The base URL MUST be an "https" URL, MAY contain a port, and MAY contain a path with any number of path segments but MUST NOT contain a query string, fragment, or trailing "/". Example:

ベースURL:クライアントメッセージのURL [RFC3986]を構築するために使用されるプレフィックス(セクション5を参照)。基本URLは「https」URLでなければならず、ポートを含めることができ、任意の数のパスセグメントを持つパスを含めることができますが、クエリ文字列、フラグメント、または末尾の "/"を含めることはできません。例:。

Hash Algorithm: The hash algorithm used for the Merkle Tree (see Section 10.2.1).


Signature Algorithm: The signature algorithm used (see Section 2.2).


Public Key: The public key used to verify signatures generated by the log. A log MUST NOT use the same keypair as any other log.


Log ID: The OID that uniquely identifies the log.


Maximum Merge Delay: The MMD the log has committed to. This document deliberately does not specify any limits on the value to allow for experimentation.


Version: The version of the protocol supported by the log (currently 1 or 2).


Maximum Chain Length: The longest certificate chain submission the log is willing to accept, if the log imposes any limit.


STH Frequency Count: The maximum number of STHs the log may produce in any period equal to the Maximum Merge Delay (see Section 4.10).


Final STH: If a log has been closed down (i.e., no longer accepts new entries), existing entries may still be valid. In this case, the client should know the final valid STH in the log to ensure no new entries can be added without detection. This value MUST be provided in the form of a TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2. If a log is still accepting entries, this value should not be provided.


[JSON.Metadata] is an example of a metadata format that includes the above elements.


4.2. Evaluating Submissions
4.2. 提出の評価

A log determines whether to accept or reject a submission by evaluating it against the minimum acceptance criteria (see Section 4.2.1) and against the log's discretionary acceptance criteria (see Section 4.2.2).


If the acceptance criteria are met, the log SHOULD accept the submission. (A log may decide, for example, to temporarily reject acceptable submissions to protect itself against denial-of-service attacks.)


The log SHALL allow retrieval of its list of accepted trust anchors (see Section 5.7), each of which is a root or intermediate CA certificate. This list might usefully be the union of root certificates trusted by major browser vendors.


4.2.1. Minimum Acceptance Criteria
4.2.1. 最小受入基準

To ensure that logged certificates and precertificates are attributable to an accepted trust anchor, to set clear expectations for what monitors would find in the log, and to avoid being overloaded by invalid submissions, the log MUST reject a submission if any of the following conditions are not met:


* The submission, type, and chain inputs MUST be set as described in Section 5.1. The log MUST NOT accommodate misordered CA certificates or use any other source of intermediate CA certificates to attempt certification path construction.

* 提出入力、タイプ、およびチェーン入力はセクション5.1で説明されているように設定する必要があります。ログは、誤ったCA証明書に対応してはいけません、または認証パスの構築を試みるために中間CA証明書の他の任意のソースを使用する必要があります。

* Each of the zero or more intermediate CA certificates in the chain MUST have one or both of the following features:

* チェーン内の0個以上の中間CA証明書のそれぞれには、次の機能の一方または両方が必要です。

- The Basic Constraints extension with the cA boolean asserted.

- CA Booleanをアサートした状態で拡張子の基本的な制約があります。

- The Key Usage extension with the keyCertSign bit asserted.

- keyCertSignビットがアサートされた状態での鍵使用量拡張。

* Each certificate in the chain MUST fall within the limits imposed by the zero or more Basic Constraints pathLenConstraint values found higher up the chain.

* チェーン内の各証明書は、チェーンを上回ったゼロ以上の基本的な制約値によって課される制限内に含まれなければなりません。

* Precertificate submissions MUST conform to all of the requirements in Section 3.2.

* Prectificateの送信は、セクション3.2のすべての要件に準拠している必要があります。

4.2.2. Discretionary Acceptance Criteria
4.2.2. 任意受容基準

If the minimum acceptance criteria are met but the submission is not fully valid according to [RFC5280] verification rules (e.g., the certificate or precertificate has expired, is not yet valid, has been revoked, exhibits ASN.1 DER encoding errors but the log can still parse it, etc.), then the acceptability of the submission is left to the log's discretion. It is useful for logs to accept such submissions in order to accommodate quirks of CA certificate-issuing software and to facilitate monitoring of CA compliance with applicable policies and technical standards. However, it is impractical for this document to enumerate, and for logs to consider, all of the ways that a submission might fail to comply with [RFC5280].

最小受付基準が満たされていますが、[RFC5280]検証規則(証明書またはPrectificateが期限切れになっていますが、まだ有効ではありませんが、取り消されていますが、ASN.1 DERエンコーディングエラーが発生していますが、展示されていますが、展示されています。それを解析することができます。CA証明書発行ソフトウェアのQUIRKに対応し、適用可能なポリシーや技術基準のCA準拠の監視を容易にするために、そのような提出を受け入れるのが役立ちます。ただし、この文書は列挙、および検討するログを考慮して、[RFC5280]の順守に失敗する可能性があるすべての方法ではありません。

Logs SHOULD limit the length of chain they will accept. The maximum chain length is one of the log's parameters (see Section 4.1).


4.3. Log Entries
4.3. ログエントリ

If a submission is accepted and an SCT is issued, the accepting log MUST store the entire chain used for verification. This chain MUST include the certificate or precertificate itself, the zero or more intermediate CA certificates provided by the submitter, and the trust anchor used to verify the chain (even if it was omitted from the submission). The log MUST provide this chain for auditing upon request (see Section 5.6) so that the CA cannot avoid blame by logging a partial or empty chain. Each log entry is a TransItem structure of type x509_entry_v2 or precert_entry_v2. However, a log may store its entries in any format. If a log does not store this TransItem in full, it must store the timestamp and sct_extensions of the corresponding TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2 structure. The TransItem can be reconstructed from these fields and the entire chain that the log used to verify the submission.

提出が受け入れられ、SCTが発行された場合、受け入れログは検証に使用されるチェーン全体を保存する必要があります。このチェーンには、証明書または受精具自体、提出者によって提供されたゼロ以上の中間CA証明書、およびチェーンの検証に使用されたTrust Anchorが含まれていなければなりません(提出から省略されていても)。ログは、要求時に監査のためにこのチェーンを提供する必要があります(セクション5.6を参照)。各ログエントリは、Type X509_Entry_v2またはPRECERT_ENTRY_V2のTransitem構造です。ただし、ログはそのエントリを任意の形式で格納できます。ログがこのトランジスタを完全に保存しない場合は、対応するTimesTampEdCertificateNtryDataAV2構造のタイムスタンプとsct_extensionsを格納する必要があります。これらのフィールドから再構築することができ、そのログが送信を検証するために使用されたチェーン全体を再構築できます。

4.4. Log ID
4.4. ログID.

Each log is identified by an OID, which is one of the log's parameters (see Section 4.1) and which MUST NOT be used to identify any other log. A log's operator MUST either allocate the OID themselves or request an OID from the Log ID registry (see Section 10.2.5). One way to get an OID arc, from which OIDs can be allocated, is to request a Private Enterprise Number from IANA by completing the registration form ( The only advantage of the registry is that the DER encoding can be small. (Recall that OID allocations do not require a central registration, although logs will most likely want to make themselves known to potential clients through out-of-band means.) Various data structures include the DER encoding of this OID, excluding the ASN.1 tag and length bytes, in an opaque vector:

各ログはOIDによって識別されます。これはログのパラメータの1つであり(セクション4.1を参照)、他のログを識別するために使用しないでください。ログの演算子は、OID自体を割り当てるか、ログIDレジストリからOIDを要求する必要があります(10.2.5項を参照)。OID ARCを取得する1つの方法で、そこからOIDを割り当てることができる方法は、登録フォーム(を完了することによってIANAからプライベートエンタープライズ番号を要求することです。レジストリの唯一の利点は、DERエンコードが小さくなる可能性があることです。(OIDの割り当ては中央登録を必要としないことを思い出してください。不透明なベクトルのタグと長さのバイト数:

       opaque LogID<2..127>;

Note that the ASN.1 length and the opaque vector length are identical in size (1 byte) and value, so the full DER encoding (including the tag and length) of the OID can be reproduced simply by prepending an OBJECT IDENTIFIER tag (0x06) to the opaque vector length and contents.


The OID used to identify a log is limited such that the DER encoding of its value, excluding the tag and length, MUST be no longer than 127 octets.


4.5. TransItem Structure
4.5. トランジティム構造

Various data structures are encapsulated in the TransItem structure to ensure that the type and version of each one is identified in a common fashion:


       enum {
           x509_entry_v2(0x0100), precert_entry_v2(0x0101),
           x509_sct_v2(0x0102), precert_sct_v2(0x0103),
           signed_tree_head_v2(0x0104), consistency_proof_v2(0x0105),
           /* Reserved Code Points */
       } VersionedTransType;
       struct {
           VersionedTransType versioned_type;
           select (versioned_type) {
               case x509_entry_v2: TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2;
               case precert_entry_v2: TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2;
               case x509_sct_v2: SignedCertificateTimestampDataV2;
               case precert_sct_v2: SignedCertificateTimestampDataV2;
               case signed_tree_head_v2: SignedTreeHeadDataV2;
               case consistency_proof_v2: ConsistencyProofDataV2;
               case inclusion_proof_v2: InclusionProofDataV2;
           } data;
       } TransItem;

versioned_type is a value from the IANA registry in Section 10.2.3 that identifies the type of the encapsulated data structure and the earliest version of this protocol to which it conforms. This document is v2.


data is the encapsulated data structure. The various structures named with the DataV2 suffix are defined in later sections of this document.


Note that VersionedTransType combines the v1 type enumerations Version, LogEntryType, SignatureType, and MerkleLeafType [RFC6962]. Note also that v1 did not define TransItem, but this document provides guidelines (see Appendix A) on how v2 implementations can coexist with v1 implementations.

VersionedTranStypeは、v1型列挙型バージョン、LogEntryType、SignatureType、およびMerkleLeafType [RFC6962]を組み合わせたものです。また、V1はTransitemを定義しなかったことにも注意してくださいが、このドキュメントでは、V2実装がV1実装と共存できる方法についてのガイドライン(付録Aを参照)を提供します。

Future versions of this protocol may reuse VersionedTransType values defined in this document as long as the corresponding data structures are not modified and may add new VersionedTransType values for new or modified data structures.


4.6. Log Artifact Extensions
4.6. Artifact Extensionsをログに記録します
       enum {
       } ExtensionType;
       struct {
           ExtensionType extension_type;
           opaque extension_data<0..2^16-1>;
       } Extension;

The Extension structure provides a generic extensibility for log artifacts, including SCTs (Section 4.8) and STHs (Section 4.10). The interpretation of the extension_data field is determined solely by the value of the extension_type field.


This document does not define any extensions, but it does establish a registry for future ExtensionType values (see Section 10.2.4). Each document that registers a new ExtensionType must specify the context in which it may be used (e.g., SCT, STH, or both) and describe how to interpret the corresponding extension_data.


4.7. Merkle Tree Leaves
4.7. メルクルツの葉

The leaves of a log's Merkle Tree correspond to the log's entries (see Section 4.3). Each leaf is the leaf hash (Section 2.1) of a TransItem structure of type x509_entry_v2 or precert_entry_v2, which encapsulates a TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2 structure. Note that leaf hashes are calculated as HASH(0x00 || TransItem), where the hash algorithm is one of the log's parameters.

ログのMerkleツリーの葉はログのエントリに対応しています(セクション4.3を参照)。各リーフは、TimesTampedCertificateEntryDataV2構造をカプセル化するType X509_Entry_v2またはPrecert_entry_v2のトランジスタ構造のリーフハッシュ(セクション2.1)です。リーフハッシュはハッシュ(0x00 || Transitem)として計算され、ここでハッシュアルゴリズムはログのパラメータの1つです。

       opaque TBSCertificate<1..2^24-1>;
       struct {
           uint64 timestamp;
           opaque issuer_key_hash<32..2^8-1>;
           TBSCertificate tbs_certificate;
           Extension sct_extensions<0..2^16-1>;
       } TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2;

timestamp is the date and time at which the certificate or precertificate was accepted by the log, in the form of a 64-bit unsigned number of milliseconds elapsed since the Unix Epoch (1 January 1970 00:00:00 UTC -- see [UNIXTIME]), ignoring leap seconds, in network byte order. Note that the leaves of a log's Merkle Tree are not required to be in strict chronological order.

TimesTampは、UNIXエポック以降の64ビットの符号なしミリ秒数の形式で、証明書または受入人がログによって受け入れられた日時(1970年1月1日00:00:00 UTC - UnixTime])、ネットワークバイト順で、うるう秒を無視します。ログのメルクルツリーの葉は、厳密な時系列順にある必要はありません。

issuer_key_hash is the HASH of the public key of the CA that issued the certificate or precertificate, calculated over the DER encoding of the key represented as SubjectPublicKeyInfo [RFC5280]. This is needed to bind the CA to the certificate or precertificate, making it impossible for the corresponding SCT to be valid for any other certificate or precertificate whose TBSCertificate matches tbs_certificate. The length of the issuer_key_hash MUST match HASH_SIZE.

ISSUER_KEY_HASHは、CompectSpublicKeyInfo [RFC5280]として表されるキーのDERエンコーディングを介して計算された、証明書またはPrecertificateを発行したCAの公開鍵のハッシュです。これは、CAを証明書または省庁にバインドするために必要であり、対応するSCTが他の証明書またはPrecertificateに対して有効であることを不可能にするために必要である。issuer_key_hashの長さはhash_sizeと一致する必要があります。

tbs_certificate is the DER-encoded TBSCertificate from the submission. (Note that a precertificate's TBSCertificate can be reconstructed from the corresponding certificate, as described in Section 8.1.2).


sct_extensions is byte-for-byte identical to the SCT extensions of the corresponding SCT.


The type of the TransItem corresponds to the value of the type parameter supplied in the Section 5.1 call.


4.8. Signed Certificate Timestamp (SCT)
4.8. 署名付き証明書タイムスタンプ(SCT)

An SCT is a TransItem structure of type x509_sct_v2 or precert_sct_v2, which encapsulates a SignedCertificateTimestampDataV2 structure:

SCTは、SignedCertificateTimestampDataV2構造をカプセル化するType x509_sct_v2またはprecert_sct_v2のTransitem構造です。

       struct {
           LogID log_id;
           uint64 timestamp;
           Extension sct_extensions<0..2^16-1>;
           opaque signature<1..2^16-1>;
       } SignedCertificateTimestampDataV2;

log_id is this log's unique ID, encoded in an opaque vector, as described in Section 4.4.


timestamp is equal to the timestamp from the corresponding TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2 structure.


sct_extensions is a vector of 0 or more SCT extensions. This vector MUST NOT include more than one extension with the same extension_type. The extensions in the vector MUST be ordered by the value of the extension_type field, smallest value first. All SCT extensions are similar to noncritical X.509v3 extensions (i.e., the mustUnderstand field is not set), and a recipient SHOULD ignore any extension it does not understand. Furthermore, an implementation MAY choose to ignore any extension(s) that it does understand.


signature is computed over a TransItem structure of type x509_entry_v2 or precert_entry_v2 (see Section 4.7) using the signature algorithm declared in the log's parameters (see Section 4.1).


4.9. Merkle Tree Head
4.9. メルクルツリーヘッド

The log stores information about its Merkle Tree in a TreeHeadDataV2:


       opaque NodeHash<32..2^8-1>;
       struct {
           uint64 timestamp;
           uint64 tree_size;
           NodeHash root_hash;
           Extension sth_extensions<0..2^16-1>;
       } TreeHeadDataV2;

The length of NodeHash MUST match HASH_SIZE of the log.


timestamp is the current date and time, using the format defined in Section 4.7.


tree_size is the number of entries currently in the log's Merkle Tree.


root_hash is the root of the Merkle Tree.


sth_extensions is a vector of 0 or more STH extensions. This vector MUST NOT include more than one extension with the same extension_type. The extensions in the vector MUST be ordered by the value of the extension_type field, smallest value first. If an implementation sees an extension that it does not understand, it SHOULD ignore that extension. Furthermore, an implementation MAY choose to ignore any extension(s) that it does understand.


4.10. Signed Tree Head (STH)
4.10. 署名されたツリーヘッド(STH)

Periodically, each log SHOULD sign its current tree head information (see Section 4.9) to produce an STH. When a client requests a log's latest STH (see Section 5.2), the log MUST return an STH that is no older than the log's MMD. However, since STHs could be used to mark individual clients (by producing a new STH for each query), a log MUST NOT produce STHs more frequently than its parameters declare (see Section 4.1). In general, there is no need to produce a new STH unless there are new entries in the log; however, in the event that a log does not accept any submissions during an MMD period, the log MUST sign the same Merkle Tree Hash with a fresh timestamp.


An STH is a TransItem structure of type signed_tree_head_v2, which encapsulates a SignedTreeHeadDataV2 structure:


       struct {
           LogID log_id;
           TreeHeadDataV2 tree_head;
           opaque signature<1..2^16-1>;
       } SignedTreeHeadDataV2;

log_id is this log's unique ID encoded in an opaque vector, as described in Section 4.4.


The timestamp in tree_head MUST be at least as recent as the most recent SCT timestamp in the tree. Each subsequent timestamp MUST be more recent than the timestamp of the previous update.


tree_head contains the latest tree head information (see Section 4.9).


signature is computed over the tree_head field using the signature algorithm declared in the log's parameters (see Section 4.1).


4.11. Merkle Consistency Proofs
4.11. メルクル一貫性証明

To prepare a Merkle consistency proof for distribution to clients, the log produces a TransItem structure of type consistency_proof_v2, which encapsulates a ConsistencyProofDataV2 structure:

クライアントへの配布に対してMerkleの整合性証明を準備するために、ログはConsplicationProofDatav2構造をカプセル化するType Consplance_Proof_v2のTransitem構造を生成します。

       struct {
           LogID log_id;
           uint64 tree_size_1;
           uint64 tree_size_2;
           NodeHash consistency_path<0..2^16-1>;
       } ConsistencyProofDataV2;

log_id is this log's unique ID encoded in an opaque vector, as described in Section 4.4.


tree_size_1 is the size of the older tree.


tree_size_2 is the size of the newer tree.


consistency_path is a vector of Merkle Tree nodes proving the consistency of two STHs, as described in Section 2.1.4.


4.12. Merkle Inclusion Proofs
4.12. メルクル包含証明

To prepare a Merkle inclusion proof for distribution to clients, the log produces a TransItem structure of type inclusion_proof_v2, which encapsulates an InclusionProofDataV2 structure:


       struct {
           LogID log_id;
           uint64 tree_size;
           uint64 leaf_index;
           NodeHash inclusion_path<0..2^16-1>;
       } InclusionProofDataV2;

log_id is this log's unique ID encoded in an opaque vector, as described in Section 4.4.


tree_size is the size of the tree on which this inclusion proof is based.


leaf_index is the 0-based index of the log entry corresponding to this inclusion proof.


inclusion_path is a vector of Merkle Tree nodes proving the inclusion of the chosen certificate or precertificate, as described in Section 2.1.3.


4.13. Shutting Down a Log
4.13. ログをシャットダウンします

Log operators may decide to shut down a log for various reasons, such as deprecation of the signature algorithm. If there are entries in the log for certificates that have not yet expired, simply making TLS clients stop recognizing that log will have the effect of invalidating SCTs from that log. In order to avoid that, the following actions SHOULD be taken:


* Make it known to clients and monitors that the log will be frozen. This is not part of the API, so it will have to be done via a relevant out-of-band mechanism.

* それを顧客に知らせ、ログが凍結することを監視します。これはAPIの一部ではないため、関連する帯域外機構を介して行わなければなりません。

* Stop accepting new submissions (the error code "shutdown" should be returned for such requests).

* 新しい送信の受け入れの停止(エラーコード「シャットダウン」は、そのような要求に対して返す必要があります)。

* Once MMD from the last accepted submission has passed and all pending submissions are incorporated, issue a final STH and publish it as one of the log's parameters. Having an STH with a timestamp that is after the MMD has passed from the last SCT issuance allows clients to audit this log regularly without special handling for the final STH. At this point, the log's private key is no longer needed and can be destroyed.

* 最後に受け入れられた提出からMMDが渡され、すべての保留中の提出が組み込まれている場合は、最後のSTHを発行し、それをログのパラメータの1つとして公開します。最後のSCT発行からMMDが経過した後のタイムスタンプでSTHを持つことで、クライアントは最後のSTHのための特別な処理なしにこのログを定期的に監査することができます。この時点で、ログの秘密鍵は不要になり、破棄される可能性があります。

* Keep the log running until the certificates in all of its entries have expired or exist in other logs (this can be determined by scanning other logs or connecting to domains mentioned in the certificates and inspecting the SCTs served).

* すべてのエントリ内の証明書が他のログに期限切れになるか存在するまでログを実行してください(これは、証明書に記載されている他のログをスキャンするか、SCTを処理したSCTの検査)を実行します。

5. Log Client Messages
5. ログクライアントメッセージ

Messages are sent as HTTPS GET or POST requests. Parameters for POSTs and all responses are encoded as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) objects [RFC8259]. Parameters for GETs are encoded as order-independent key/value URL parameters, using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format described in the "HTML 4.01 Specification" [HTML401]. Binary data is base64 encoded according to Section 4 of [RFC4648], as specified in the individual messages.

メッセージはHTTPS GETまたはPOSTリクエストとして送信されます。POSTおよびすべての応答のパラメータは、JavaScriptオブジェクト表記(JSON)オブジェクト(RFC8259]としてエンコードされています。GetSのパラメータは、「HTML 4.01仕様」[HTML401]で説明されている「アプリケーション/ X-WWW形式 - URLENCODED」フォーマットを使用して、順序に依存しないキー/値URLパラメータとしてエンコードされています。バイナリデータは、個々のメッセージで指定されているように[RFC4648]のセクション4に従って符号化されています。

Clients are configured with a log's base URL, which is one of the log's parameters. Clients construct URLs for requests by appending suffixes to this base URL. This structure places some degree of restriction on how log operators can deploy these services, as noted in [RFC8820]. However, operational experience with version 1 of this protocol has not indicated that these restrictions are a problem in practice.


Note that JSON objects and URL parameters may contain fields not specified here to allow for experimentation. Any fields that are not understood SHOULD be ignored.


In practice, log servers may include multiple front-end machines. Since it is impractical to keep these machines in perfect sync, errors that are caused by skew between the machines may occur. Where such errors are possible, the front end will return additional information (as specified below), making it possible for clients to make progress, if progress is possible. Front ends MUST only serve data that is free of gaps (that is, for example, no front end will respond with an STH unless it is also able to prove consistency from all log entries logged within that STH).


For example, when a consistency proof between two STHs is requested, the front end reached may not yet be aware of one or both STHs. In the case where it is unaware of both, it will return the latest STH it is aware of. Where it is aware of the first but not the second, it will return the latest STH it is aware of and a consistency proof from the first STH to the returned STH. The case where it knows the second but not the first should not arise (see the "no gaps" requirement above).


If the log is unable to process a client's request, it MUST return an HTTP response code of 4xx/5xx (see [RFC7231]), and, in place of the responses outlined in the subsections below, the body SHOULD be a JSON problem details object (see Section 3 of [RFC7807]) containing:

ログがクライアントの要求を処理できない場合は、4xx / 5xxのHTTP応答コードを返す必要があります([RFC7231]を参照)、下記の小節に概説されている応答の代わりに、本文はJSONの問題の詳細になる必要があります。オブジェクト([RFC7807]のセクション3を参照)

type: A URN reference identifying the problem. To facilitate automated response to errors, this document defines a set of standard tokens for use in the type field within the URN namespace of: "urn:ietf:params:trans:error:".

タイプ:問題を特定するURNリファレンス。エラーに対する自動応答を容易にするために、このドキュメントは、次のURN名前空間内のTypeフィールドで使用するための標準トークンのセットを定義します。 "urn:ietf:params:trans:error:"。

detail: A human-readable string describing the error that prevented the log from processing the request, ideally with sufficient detail to enable the error to be rectified.


For example, in response to a request of <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-entries?start=100&end=99, the log would return a 400 Bad Request response code with a body similar to the following:

たとえば、<ベースURL> / CT / V2 / GETエントリの要求に応答して?START = 100&END = 99では、ログは次のようなボディで400の不正な要求応答コードを返します。

           "type": "urn:ietf:params:trans:error:endBeforeStart",
           "detail": "'start' cannot be greater than 'end'"

Most error types are specific to the type of request and are defined in the respective subsections below. The one exception is the "malformed" error type, which indicates that the log server could not parse the client's request because it did not comply with this document:


             | type      | detail                           |
             | malformed | The request could not be parsed. |

Table 1


Clients SHOULD treat 500 Internal Server Error and 503 Service Unavailable responses as transient failures and MAY retry the same request without modification at a later date. Note that in the case of a 503 response, the log MAY include a Retry-After header field per [RFC7231] in order to request a minimum time for the client to wait before retrying the request. In the absence of this header field, this document does not specify a minimum.


Clients SHOULD treat any 4xx error as a problem with the request and not attempt to resubmit without some modification to the request. The full status code MAY provide additional details.


This document deliberately does not provide more specific guidance on the use of HTTP status codes.


5.1. Submit Entry to Log
5.1. ログにエントリを送信してください
   POST <Base URL>/ct/v2/submit-entry

Inputs: submission: The base64-encoded certificate or precertificate.


type: The VersionedTransType integer value that indicates the type of the submission: 1 for x509_entry_v2 or 2 for precert_entry_v2.


chain: An array of zero or more JSON strings, each of which is a base64-encoded CA certificate. The first element is the certifier of the submission, the second certifies the first, etc. The last element of chain (or, if chain is an empty array, the submission) is certified by an accepted trust anchor.


Outputs: sct: A base64-encoded TransItem of type x509_sct_v2 or precert_sct_v2, signed by this log, that corresponds to the submission.

出力:SCT:このログによって署名されたType x509_sct_v2またはprecert_sct_v2のbase64エンコードされたトランジクデテム。

If the submitted entry is immediately appended to (or already exists in) this log's tree, then the log SHOULD also output:


sth: A base64-encoded TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2 signed by this log.


inclusion: A base64-encoded TransItem of type inclusion_proof_v2 whose inclusion_path array of Merkle Tree nodes proves the inclusion of the submission in the returned sth.


Error codes:


    | type           | detail                                        |
    | badSubmission  | submission is neither a valid certificate nor |
    |                | a valid precertificate.                       |
    | badType        | type is neither 1 nor 2.                      |
    | badChain       | The first element of chain is not the         |
    |                | certifier of the submission, or the second    |
    |                | element does not certify the first, etc.      |
    | badCertificate | One or more certificates in chain are not     |
    |                | valid (e.g., not properly encoded).           |
    | unknownAnchor  | The last element of chain (or, if chain is an |
    |                | empty array, the submission) is not, nor is   |
    |                | it certified by, an accepted trust anchor.    |
    | shutdown       | The log is no longer accepting submissions.   |

Table 2


If the version of sct is not v2, then a v2 client may be unable to verify the signature. It MUST NOT construe this as an error. This is to avoid forcing an upgrade of compliant v2 clients that do not use the returned SCTs.


If a log detects bad encoding in a chain that otherwise verifies correctly, then the log MUST either log the certificate or return the "badCertificate" error. If the certificate is logged, an SCT MUST be issued. Logging the certificate is useful, because monitors (Section 8.2) can then detect these encoding errors, which may be accepted by some TLS clients.


If submission is an accepted trust anchor whose certifier is neither an accepted trust anchor nor the first element of chain, then the log MUST return the "unknownAnchor" error. A log is not able to generate an SCT for a submission if it does not have access to the issuer's public key.

送信が認められている信託アンカーであると認定された信託アンカーである場合は、承認された信託アンカーもチェーンの最初の要素でもない場合、ログは "unknownAnchor"エラーを返す必要があります。発行者の公開鍵にアクセスできない場合は、ログが送信用にSCTを生成できません。

If the returned sct is intended to be provided to TLS clients, then sth and inclusion (if returned) SHOULD also be provided to TLS clients. For example, if type was 2 (indicating precert_sct_v2), then all three TransItems could be embedded in the certificate.


5.2. Retrieve Latest STH
5.2. 最新のSTHを取得します
   GET <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-sth

No inputs.


Outputs: sth: A base64-encoded TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2 signed by this log that is no older than the log's MMD.


5.3. Retrieve Merkle Consistency Proof between Two STHs
5.3. 2つのSTHの間のメルクルの整合性証明を取得します
   GET <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-sth-consistency

Inputs: first: The tree_size of the older tree, in decimal.


second: The tree_size of the newer tree, in decimal (optional).


Both tree sizes must be from existing v2 STHs. However, because of skew, the receiving front end may not know one or both of the existing STHs. If both are known, then only the consistency output is returned. If the first is known but the second is not (or has been omitted), then the latest known STH is returned, along with a consistency proof between the first STH and the latest. If neither are known, then the latest known STH is returned without a consistency proof.

両方のツリーサイズは既存のV2 STHからでなければなりません。しかしながら、スキューのために、受信前端は既存のSTHの一方または両方を知らないかもしれない。両方がわかっている場合は、整合性出力のみが返されます。1つ目が知られているが2番目のものではない場合(または省略されている)、最初のSTHと最新のものとの間の一貫性の証明とともに、最新の既知のSTHが返されます。どちらも知られていない場合は、最新の既知のSTHが一貫性の証明なしで返されます。

Outputs: consistency: A base64-encoded TransItem of type consistency_proof_v2 whose tree_size_1 MUST match the first input. If the sth output is omitted, then tree_size_2 MUST match the second input. If first and second are equal and correspond to a known STH, the returned consistency proof MUST be empty (a consistency_path array with zero elements).


sth: A base64-encoded TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2, signed by this log.


Note that no signature is required for the consistency output, as it is used to verify the consistency between two signed STHs.


Error codes:


       | type              | detail                               |
       | firstUnknown      | first is before the latest known STH |
       |                   | but is not from an existing STH.     |
       | secondUnknown     | second is before the latest known    |
       |                   | STH but is not from an existing STH. |
       | secondBeforeFirst | second is smaller than first.        |

Table 3


See Section for an outline of how to use the consistency output.


5.4. Retrieve Merkle Inclusion Proof from Log by Leaf Hash
5.4. Leaf Hashでログからメルクル包含証明を取得します
   GET <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-proof-by-hash

Inputs: hash: A base64-encoded v2 leaf hash.


tree_size: The tree_size of the tree on which to base the proof, in decimal.


The hash must be calculated as defined in Section 4.7. A v2 STH must exist for the tree_size. Because of skew, the front end may not know the requested tree head. In that case, it will return the latest STH it knows, along with an inclusion proof to that STH. If the front end knows the requested tree head, then only inclusion is returned.

ハッシュはセクション4.7で定義されているとおりに計算する必要があります。tree_sizeにはv2 sthが存在しなければなりません。スキューのために、フロントエンドは要求された木の頭を知らないかもしれません。その場合、それはそれが知っている最新のSTHを、そのSTHへの包含証明とともに返却されます。フロントエンドが要求されたツリーヘッドを知っている場合は、包含のみが返されます。

Outputs: inclusion: A base64-encoded TransItem of type inclusion_proof_v2 whose inclusion_path array of Merkle Tree nodes proves the inclusion of the certificate (as specified by the hash parameter) in the selected STH.


sth: A base64-encoded TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2, signed by this log.


Note that no signature is required for the inclusion output, as it is used to verify inclusion in the selected STH, which is signed.


Error codes:


         | type            | detail                              |
         | hashUnknown     | hash is not the hash of a known     |
         |                 | leaf (may be caused by skew or by a |
         |                 | known certificate not yet merged).  |
         | treeSizeUnknown | hash is before the latest known STH |
         |                 | but is not from an existing STH.    |

Table 4


See Section for an outline of how to use the inclusion output.


5.5. Retrieve Merkle Inclusion Proof, STH, and Consistency Proof by Leaf Hash

5.5. 葉ハッシュによるMerkle包含証明、STH、および一貫性証明を検索する

   GET <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-all-by-hash

Inputs: hash: A base64-encoded v2 leaf hash.


tree_size: The tree_size of the tree on which to base the proofs, in decimal.


The hash must be calculated as defined in Section 4.7. A v2 STH must exist for the tree_size.

ハッシュはセクション4.7で定義されているとおりに計算する必要があります。tree_sizeにはv2 sthが存在しなければなりません。

Because of skew, the front end may not know the requested tree head or the requested hash, which leads to a number of cases:


       | Case                | Response                            |
       | latest STH <        | Return latest STH.                  |
       | requested tree head |                                     |
       | latest STH >        | Return latest STH and a consistency |
       | requested tree head | proof between it and the requested  |
       |                     | tree head (see Section 5.3).        |
       | index of requested  | Return inclusion.                   |
       | hash < latest STH   |                                     |

Table 5


Note that more than one case can be true; in which case, the returned data is their union. It is also possible for none to be true; in which case, the front end MUST return an empty response.


Outputs: inclusion: A base64-encoded TransItem of type inclusion_proof_v2 whose inclusion_path array of Merkle Tree nodes proves the inclusion of the certificate (as specified by the hash parameter) in the selected STH.


sth: A base64-encoded TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2, signed by this log.


consistency: A base64-encoded TransItem of type consistency_proof_v2 that proves the consistency of the requested tree head and the returned STH.

一貫性:要求されたツリーヘッドと返されたSTHの一貫性を証明するType Consportency_proof_v2のBase64エンコードされたトランジスタ。

Note that no signature is required for the inclusion or consistency outputs, as they are used to verify inclusion in and consistency of signed STHs.


Errors are the same as in Section 5.4.


See Section for an outline of how to use the inclusion output, and see Section for an outline of how to use the consistency output.


5.6. Retrieve Entries and STH from Log
5.6. ログからエントリとSTHを取得します
   GET <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-entries

Inputs: start: 0-based index of first entry to retrieve, in decimal.


end: 0-based index of last entry to retrieve, in decimal.


Outputs: entries: An array of objects, each consisting of:


log_entry: The base64-encoded TransItem structure of type x509_entry_v2 or precert_entry_v2 (see Section 4.3).


submitted_entry: JSON object equivalent to inputs that were submitted to submit-entry, with the addition of the trust anchor to the chain field if the submission did not include it.


sct: The base64-encoded TransItem of type x509_sct_v2 or precert_sct_v2, corresponding to this log entry.

SCT:このログエントリに対応するType X509_SCT_v2またはPRECERT_SCT_V2のBASE64エンコードされたトランジクデテム。

sth: A base64-encoded TransItem of type signed_tree_head_v2, signed by this log.


Note that this message is not signed -- the entries data can be verified by constructing the Merkle Tree Hash corresponding to a retrieved STH. All leaves MUST be v2. However, a compliant v2 client MUST NOT construe an unrecognized TransItem type as an error. This means it may be unable to parse some entries, but note that each client can inspect the entries it does recognize as well as verify the integrity of the data by treating unrecognized leaves as opaque input to the tree.


The start and end parameters SHOULD be within the range 0 <= x < tree_size, as returned by get-sth in Section 5.2.

開始パラメータと終了パラメータは、セクション5.2のGet-Sthによって返されるように、0 <= x <tree_sizeの範囲内になければなりません。

The start parameter MUST be less than or equal to the end parameter.


Each submitted_entry output parameter MUST include the trust anchor that the log used to verify the submission, even if that trust anchor was not provided to submit-entry (see Section 5.1). If the submission does not certify itself, then the first element of chain MUST be present and MUST certify the submission.


Log servers MUST honor requests where 0 <= start < tree_size and end >= tree_size by returning a partial response covering only the valid entries in the specified range. end >= tree_size could be caused by skew. Note that the following restriction may also apply:

ログサーバーは、0 <= START <tree_sizeとend> = tree_sizeを指定して、指定された範囲内の有効なエントリのみをカバーする部分応答を返してください。終了> = tree_sizeはスキューによって引き起こされる可能性があります。なお、以下の制限事項も適用される場合があります。

Logs MAY restrict the number of entries that can be retrieved per get-entries request. If a client requests more than the permitted number of entries, the log SHALL return the maximum number of entries permissible. These entries SHALL be sequential beginning with the entry specified by start. Note that a limit on the number of entries is not immutable, and therefore the restriction may be changed or lifted at any time and is not listed with the other Log Parameters in Section 4.1.


Because of skew, it is possible the log server will not have any entries between start and end. In this case, it MUST return an empty entries array.

スキューのため、Log Serverには開始と終了の間のエントリがない可能性があります。この場合、空のエントリ配列を返す必要があります。

In any case, the log server MUST return the latest STH it knows about.


See Section 2.1.2 for an outline of how to use a complete list of log_entry entries to verify the root_hash.


Error codes:


           | type           | detail                           |
           | startUnknown   | start is greater than the number |
           |                | of entries in the Merkle Tree.   |
           | endBeforeStart | start cannot be greater than     |
           |                | end.                             |

Table 6


5.7. Retrieve Accepted Trust Anchors
5.7. 受け入れられた信託アンカーを取得します
   GET <Base URL>/ct/v2/get-anchors

No inputs.


Outputs: certificates: An array of JSON strings, each of which is a base64-encoded CA certificate that is acceptable to the log.


max_chain_length: If the server has chosen to limit the length of chains it accepts, this is the maximum number of certificates in the chain, in decimal. If there is no limit, this is omitted.


This data is not signed, and the protocol depends on the security guarantees of TLS to ensure correctness.


6. TLS Servers
6. TLSサーバー

CT-using TLS servers MUST use at least one of the mechanisms described below to present one or more SCTs from one or more logs to each TLS client during full TLS handshakes, when requested by the client, where each SCT corresponds to the server certificate. (Of course, a server can only send a TLS extension if the client has specified it first.) Servers SHOULD also present corresponding inclusion proofs and STHs.

CT-USISHT TLSサーバーは、クライアントによって要求されたときに、各TLSハンドシェイク中に1つ以上のログから1つ以上のSCTを各TLSクライアントに提示するために、以下に説明されているメカニズムの少なくとも1つを使用しなければなりません。各SCTはサーバー証明書に対応します。(もちろん、サーバーはクライアントが最初に指定した場合にのみTLSの拡張機能のみを送信できます。)サーバーは対応する包含証書とSTHSも提示する必要があります。

A server can provide SCTs using a TLS 1.3 extension (Section 4.2 of [RFC8446]) with type transparency_info (see Section 6.5). This mechanism allows TLS servers to participate in CT without the cooperation of CAs, unlike the other two mechanisms. It also allows SCTs and inclusion proofs to be updated on the fly.

サーバーはTLS 1.3拡張子([RFC8446]のセクション4.2)を使用してSCTを入力できます([RFC8446]のセクション4.2)。このメカニズムにより、他の2つのメカニズムとは異なり、TLSサーバーはCASの協力なしにCTに参加できます。また、SCTと包含証書をその場で更新することもできます。

The server may also use an Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) [RFC6960] response extension (see Section 7.1.1), providing the OCSP response as part of the TLS handshake. Providing a response during a TLS handshake is popularly known as "OCSP stapling". For TLS 1.3, the information is encoded as an extension in the status_request extension data; see Section of [RFC8446]. For TLS 1.2 [RFC5246], the information is encoded in the CertificateStatus message; see Section 8 of [RFC6066]. Using stapling also allows SCTs and inclusion proofs to be updated on the fly.

サーバーは、オンライン証明書ステータスプロトコル(OCSP)[RFC6960]応答拡張(セクション7.1.1を参照)を使用し、TLSハンドシェイクの一部としてOCSP応答を提供します。TLSハンドシェイク中に応答を提供することは、「OCSPステープルリング」として一般的に知られています。TLS 1.3の場合、情報はSTATUS_REQUEST拡張データの拡張としてエンコードされます。[RFC8446]の4.4.2.1項を参照してください。TLS 1.2 [RFC5246]の場合、情報はCertificateStatusメッセージにエンコードされます。[RFC6066]のセクション8を参照してください。ステープルを使用することで、SCTと包含証書をその場で更新することもできます。

CT information can also be encoded as an extension in the X.509v3 certificate (see Section 7.1.2). This mechanism allows the use of unmodified TLS servers, but the SCTs and inclusion proofs cannot be updated on the fly. Since the logs from which the SCTs and inclusion proofs originated won't necessarily be accepted by TLS clients for the full lifetime of the certificate, there is a risk that TLS clients may subsequently consider the certificate to be noncompliant. In such an event, one of the other two mechanisms will need to be used to deliver CT information, or, if this is not possible, the certificate will need to be reissued.


6.1. TLS Client Authentication
6.1. TLSクライアント認証

This specification includes no description of how a TLS server can use CT for TLS client certificates. While this may be useful, it is not documented here for the following reasons:


* The greater security exposure is for clients to end up interacting with an illegitimate server.

* より大きなセキュリティエクスポージャーは、クライアントが不正なサーバーと対話するために終わることです。

* In general, TLS client certificates are not expected to be submitted to CT logs, particularly those intended for general public use.

* 一般に、TLSクライアント証明書はCTログ、特に一般公衆使用を意図したものに送信されることは期待されていません。

A future version could include such information.


6.2. Multiple SCTs
6.2. 複数のSCT

CT-using TLS servers SHOULD send SCTs from multiple logs because:

CT-USISH TLSサーバーは、次のようにして複数のログからSCTを送信する必要があります。

* The set of logs trusted by TLS clients is neither unified nor static; each client vendor may maintain an independent list of trusted logs, and, over time, new logs may become trusted and current logs may become distrusted. Note that client discovery, trust, and distrust of logs are expected to be handled out of band and are out of scope of this document.

* TLSクライアントが信頼したログのセットは、Unified Nor Staticでもありません。各クライアントベンダは、信頼できるログの独立したリストを維持することができ、そして経時的に新しいログが信頼され、現在のログが不信になる可能性があります。ログのクライアントの検出、信頼、および不信は、帯域外で扱われると予想され、この文書の範囲外です。

* If a CA and a log collude, it is possible to temporarily hide misissuance from clients. When a TLS client requires SCTs from multiple logs to be provided, it is more difficult to mount this attack.

* CAとログが収集した場合、クライアントからの不正行為を一時的に隠すことが可能です。TLSクライアントが複数のログからSCTを提供する必要がある場合は、この攻撃をマウントすることがより困難です。

* If a log misbehaves or suffers a key compromise, a consequence may be that clients cease to trust it. Since the time an SCT may be in use can be considerable (several years is common in current practice when embedded in a certificate), including SCTs from multiple logs reduces the probability of the certificate being rejected by TLS clients.

* ログが誤解したり、主な妥協を下回る場合、その結果、クライアントが信頼しなくなる可能性があります。複数のログからのSCTがTLSクライアントによって拒否されている証明書が拒否される可能性が低下するため、SCTが使用中の時間がかかります(証明書に埋め込まれたときに数年が現在の練習で一般的です)。

* TLS clients may have policies related to the above risks requiring TLS servers to present multiple SCTs. For example, at the time of writing, Chromium [Chromium.Log.Policy] requires multiple SCTs to be presented with Extended Validation (EV) certificates in order for the EV indicator to be shown.

* TLSクライアントには、TLSサーバーが複数のSCTを提示する必要がある上記のリスクに関連するポリシーがあります。例えば、書き込み時には、Chromium [chromium.log.policy]は、EVインジケータを示すために拡張検証(ev)証明書で複数のSCTを表示する必要がある。

To select the logs from which to obtain SCTs, a TLS server can, for example, examine the set of logs popular TLS clients accept and recognize.


6.3. TransItemList Structure
6.3. トランジスタリスト構造

Multiple SCTs, inclusion proofs, and indeed TransItem structures of any type are combined into a list as follows:


         opaque SerializedTransItem<1..2^16-1>;
         struct {
             SerializedTransItem trans_item_list<1..2^16-1>;
         } TransItemList;

Here, SerializedTransItem is an opaque byte string that contains the serialized TransItem structure. This encoding ensures that TLS clients can decode each TransItem individually (so, for example, if there is a version upgrade, out-of-date clients can still parse old TransItem structures while skipping over new TransItem structures whose versions they don't understand).


6.4. Presenting SCTs, Inclusions Proofs, and STHs
6.4. SCTS、包含プルーフ、およびSTHSを提示する

In each TransItemList that is sent during a TLS handshake, the TLS server MUST include a TransItem structure of type x509_sct_v2 or precert_sct_v2.

TLSハンドシェイクの間に送信される各トランジスタリストで、TLSサーバーにはType X509_SCT_V2またはPRECERT_SCT_V2のTransitem構造を含める必要があります。

Presenting inclusion proofs and STHs in the TLS handshake helps to protect the client's privacy (see Section 8.1.4) and reduces load on log servers. Therefore, if the TLS server can obtain them, it SHOULD also include TransItems of type inclusion_proof_v2 and signed_tree_head_v2 in the TransItemList.


6.5. transparency_info TLS Extension
6.5. 透明度_info TLS拡張子

Provided that a TLS client includes the transparency_info extension type in the ClientHello and the TLS server supports the transparency_info extension:


* The TLS server MUST verify that the received extension_data is empty.

* 受信したextension_dataが空であることをTLSサーバーであることを確認する必要があります。

* The TLS server MUST construct a TransItemList of relevant TransItems (see Section 6.4), which SHOULD omit any TransItems that are already embedded in the server certificate or the stapled OCSP response (see Section 7.1). If the constructed TransItemList is not empty, then the TLS server MUST include the transparency_info extension with the extension_data set to this TransItemList. If the list is empty, then the server SHOULD omit the extension_data element but MAY send it with an empty array.

* TLSサーバは、関連するトランジスタのトランジスタリストを構築する必要があります(6.4項を参照)。構築されたTransItemListが空でない場合、TLSサーバーには、このトランジスタリストに設定されているextension_dataを使用して透明度を追加する必要があります。リストが空の場合、サーバーはextension_data要素を省略しますが、空の配列で送信することがあります。

TLS servers MUST only include this extension in the following messages:


* the ServerHello message (for TLS 1.2 or earlier)

* ServerHelloメッセージ(TLS 1.2以前の場合)

* the Certificate or CertificateRequest message (for TLS 1.3)

* 証明書またはCertificateRequestメッセージ(TLS 1.3用)

TLS servers MUST NOT process or include this extension when a TLS session is resumed, since session resumption uses the original session information.


7. Certification Authorities
7. 認証当局
7.1. Transparency Information X.509v3 Extension
7.1. 透明度情報X.509v3拡張子

The Transparency Information X.509v3 extension, which has OID and SHOULD be noncritical, contains one or more TransItem structures in a TransItemList. This extension MAY be included in OCSP responses (see Section 7.1.1) and certificates (see Section 7.1.2). Since [RFC5280] requires the extnValue field (an OCTET STRING) of each X.509v3 extension to include the DER encoding of an ASN.1 value, a TransItemList MUST NOT be included directly. Instead, it MUST be wrapped inside an additional OCTET STRING, which is then put into the extnValue field:


       TransparencyInformationSyntax ::= OCTET STRING

TransparencyInformationSyntax contains a TransItemList.


7.1.1. OCSP Response Extension
7.1.1. OCSP応答拡張

A certification authority MAY include a Transparency Information X.509v3 extension in the singleExtensions of a SingleResponse in an OCSP response. All included SCTs and inclusion proofs MUST be for the certificate identified by the certID of that SingleResponse or for a precertificate that corresponds to that certificate.


7.1.2. Certificate Extension
7.1.2. 証明書拡張

A certification authority MAY include a Transparency Information X.509v3 extension in a certificate. All included SCTs and inclusion proofs MUST be for a precertificate that corresponds to this certificate.


7.2. TLS Feature X.509v3 Extension
7.2. TLS機能X.509v3拡張機能

A certification authority SHOULD NOT issue any certificate that identifies the transparency_info TLS extension in a TLS feature extension [RFC7633], because TLS servers are not required to support the transparency_info TLS extension in order to participate in CT (see Section 6).


8. Clients
8. クライアント

There are various different functions clients of logs might perform. We describe here some typical clients and how they should function. Any inconsistency may be used as evidence that a log has not behaved correctly, and the signatures on the data structures prevent the log from denying that misbehavior.


All clients need various parameters in order to communicate with logs and verify their responses. These parameters are described in Section 4.1, but note that this document does not describe how the parameters are obtained, which is implementation dependent (for example, see [Chromium.Policy]).


8.1. TLS Client
8.1. TLSクライアント
8.1.1. Receiving SCTs and Inclusion Proofs
8.1.1. SCTと包含証明を受信します

TLS clients receive SCTs and inclusion proofs alongside or in certificates. CT-using TLS clients MUST implement all of the three mechanisms by which TLS servers may present SCTs (see Section 6).

TLSクライアントは、SCTと包含証明を並べてまたは証明書に受け取ります。CT-USISHT TLSクライアントは、TLSサーバーがSCTSを提示できる3つのメカニズムのすべてを実装する必要があります(セクション6を参照)。

TLS clients that support the transparency_info TLS extension (see Section 6.5) SHOULD include it in ClientHello messages, with empty extension_data. If a TLS server includes the transparency_info TLS extension when resuming a TLS session, the TLS client MUST abort the handshake.

透明度_info TLS拡張機能をサポートするTLSクライアント(6.5項を参照)は、空のextension_dataを持つClientHelloメッセージに含める必要があります。TLSセッションを再開するときにTLSサーバーに拡張子が掲載されている場合、TLSクライアントはハンドシェイクを中止する必要があります。

8.1.2. Reconstructing the TBSCertificate
8.1.2. TBSCertificateを再構築します

Validation of an SCT for a certificate (where the type of the TransItem is x509_sct_v2) uses the unmodified TBSCertificate component of the certificate.


Before an SCT for a precertificate (where the type of the TransItem is precert_sct_v2) can be validated, the TBSCertificate component of the precertificate needs to be reconstructed from the TBSCertificate component of the certificate as follows:


* Remove the Transparency Information extension (see Section 7.1).

* 透明度情報拡張子を削除します(セクション7.1を参照)。

* Remove embedded v1 SCTs, identified by OID (see Section 3.3 of [RFC6962]). This allows embedded v1 and v2 SCTs to co-exist in a certificate (see Appendix A).

* OIDで識別される埋め込みV1 SCTを削除します([RFC6962]のセクション3.3を参照)。これにより、埋め込みV1およびV2 SCTが証明書に共存することができます(付録Aを参照)。

8.1.3. Validating SCTs
8.1.3. SCTの検証

In order to make use of a received SCT, the TLS client MUST first validate it as follows:


* Compute the signature input by constructing a TransItem of type x509_entry_v2 or precert_entry_v2, depending on the SCT's TransItem type. The TimestampedCertificateEntryDataV2 structure is constructed in the following manner:

* SCTのTransitem Typeに応じて、Type X509_ENTRY_V2またはPRECERT_ENTRY_V2のトランジションを構築することで署名入力を計算します。TimesTampedCertificateEntryDataV2構造は次のように構成されています。

- timestamp is copied from the SCT.

- タイムスタンプはSCTからコピーされます。

- tbs_certificate is the reconstructed TBSCertificate portion of the server certificate, as described in Section 8.1.2.

- TBS_Certificateは、セクション8.1.2に記載されているように、サーバー証明書の再構築されたTBSCertificate部分です。

- issuer_key_hash is computed as described in Section 4.7.

- ISSUER_KEY_HASHはセクション4.7に記載されているように計算されます。

- sct_extensions is copied from the SCT.

- sct_extensionsはSCTからコピーされます。

* Verify the SCT's signature against the computed signature input using the public key of the corresponding log, which is identified by the log_id. The required signature algorithm is one of the log's parameters.

* 対応するログの公開鍵を使用して、SCTの署名を検証します。これは、log_idによって識別されます。必要な署名アルゴリズムはログのパラメータの1つです。

If the TLS client does not have the corresponding log's parameters, it cannot attempt to validate the SCT. When evaluating compliance (see Section 8.1.6), the TLS client will consider only those SCTs that it was able to validate.


Note that SCT validation is not a substitute for the normal validation of the server certificate and its chain.


8.1.4. Fetching Inclusion Proofs
8.1.4. 包含プルーフの取得

When a TLS client has validated a received SCT but does not yet possess a corresponding inclusion proof, the TLS client MAY request the inclusion proof directly from a log using get-proof-by-hash (Section 5.4) or get-all-by-hash (Section 5.5).


Note that fetching inclusion proofs directly from a log will disclose to the log which TLS server the client has been communicating with. This may be regarded as a significant privacy concern, and so it is preferable for the TLS server to send the inclusion proofs (see Section 6.4).


8.1.5. Validating Inclusion Proofs
8.1.5. 包含プルーフの検証

When a TLS client has received, or fetched, an inclusion proof (and an STH), it SHOULD proceed to verify the inclusion proof to the provided STH. The TLS client SHOULD also verify consistency between the provided STH and an STH it knows about.


If the TLS client holds an STH that predates the SCT, it MAY, in the process of auditing, request a new STH from the log (Section 5.2) and then verify it by requesting a consistency proof (Section 5.3). Note that if the TLS client uses get-all-by-hash, then it will already have the new STH.

TLSクライアントがSCTを述べるSTHを保持している場合は、監査のプロセスで、ログから新しいSTHを要求し(セクション5.2)、整合性証明を要求して確認します(セクション5.3)。TLSクライアントがGet-All by-Hashを使用している場合は、すでに新しいSTHがあります。

8.1.6. Evaluating Compliance
8.1.6. コンプライアンスの評価

It is up to a client's local policy to specify the quantity and form of evidence (SCTs, inclusion proofs, or a combination) needed to achieve compliance and how to handle noncompliance.


A TLS client can only evaluate compliance if it has given the TLS server the opportunity to send SCTs and inclusion proofs by any of the three mechanisms that are mandatory to implement for CT-using TLS clients (see Section 8.1.1). Therefore, a TLS client MUST NOT evaluate compliance if it did not include both the transparency_info and status_request TLS extensions in the ClientHello.

TLSクライアントは、TLSサーバーにCT-CTLSクライアントを実装するために必須の3つのメカニズムのいずれかによって、SCTと包含証明を送信する機会がTLSサーバーに与えられた場合にのみコンプライアンスを評価できます(セクション8.1.1を参照)。したがって、TLSクライアントは、ClientHello内の透明度_infoとstatus_request TLS拡張機能の両方を含まない場合、コンプライアンスを評価してはなりません。

8.2. Monitor
8.2. モニター

Monitors watch logs to check for correct behavior, for certificates of interest, or for both. For example, a monitor may be configured to report on all certificates that apply to a specific domain name when fetching new entries for consistency validation.


A monitor MUST at least inspect every new entry in every log it watches, and it MAY also choose to keep copies of entire logs.


To inspect all of the existing entries, the monitor SHOULD follow these steps once for each log:


1. Fetch the current STH (Section 5.2).

1. 現在のSTHを取得します(セクション5.2)。

2. Verify the STH signature.

2. STHシグネチャを確認してください。

3. Fetch all the entries in the tree corresponding to the STH (Section 5.6).

3. STHに対応するツリー内のすべてのエントリを取得します(5.6項)。

4. If applicable, check each entry to see if it's a certificate of interest.

4. 該当する場合は、各エントリを確認して、興味のある証明書があるかどうかを確認してください。

5. Confirm that the tree made from the fetched entries produces the same hash as that in the STH.

5. フェッチされたエントリから作成されたツリーがSTHと同じハッシュを生成することを確認します。

To inspect new entries, the monitor SHOULD follow these steps repeatedly for each log:


1. Fetch the current STH (Section 5.2). Repeat until the STH changes. To allow for experimentation, this document does not specify the polling frequency.

1. 現在のSTHを取得します(セクション5.2)。STHが変わるまで繰り返します。実験を可能にするために、この文書はポーリング頻度を指定しません。

2. Verify the STH signature.

2. STHシグネチャを確認してください。

3. Fetch all the new entries in the tree corresponding to the STH (Section 5.6). If they remain unavailable for an extended period, then this should be viewed as misbehavior on the part of the log.

3. STHに対応するツリー内のすべての新しいエントリを取得します(セクション5.6)。拡張された期間で利用できないままである場合、これはログの部分の不正行為として表示されるべきです。

4. If applicable, check each entry to see if it's a certificate of interest.

4. 該当する場合は、各エントリを確認して、興味のある証明書があるかどうかを確認してください。

5. Either:

5. また:

a. Verify that the updated list of all entries generates a tree with the same hash as the new STH.

a. すべてのエントリの更新されたリストが新しいSTHと同じハッシュを持つツリーを生成することを確認してください。

Or, if it is not keeping all log entries:


a. Fetch a consistency proof for the new STH with the previous STH (Section 5.3).

a. 以前のSTHで新しいSTHの整合性証明を取得します(セクション5.3)。

b. Verify the consistency proof.

b. 整合性証明を確認してください。

c. Verify that the new entries generate the corresponding elements in the consistency proof.

c. 新しいエントリが一貫性証明の対応する要素を生成することを確認します。

6. Repeat from Step 1.

6. ステップ1から繰り返します。

8.3. Auditing
8.3. 監査

Auditing ensures that the current published state of a log is reachable from previously published states that are known to be good and that the promises made by the log, in the form of SCTs, have been kept. Audits are performed by monitors or TLS clients.


In particular, there are four properties of log behavior that should be checked:


* the Maximum Merge Delay (MMD)

* 最大マージ遅延(MMD)

* the STH Frequency Count

* STH周波数カウント

* the append-only property

* 追加の財産

* the consistency of the log view presented to all query sources

* すべてのクエリソースに提示されたログビューの一貫性

A benign, conformant log publishes a series of STHs over time, each derived from the previous STH and the submitted entries incorporated into the log since publication of the previous STH. This can be proven through auditing of STHs. SCTs returned to TLS clients can be audited by verifying against the accompanying certificate and using Merkle inclusion proofs against the log's Merkle Tree.


The action taken by the auditor, if an audit fails, is not specified, but note that in general, if an audit fails, the auditor is in possession of signed proof of the log's misbehavior.


A monitor (Section 8.2) can audit by verifying the consistency of STHs it receives, ensuring that each entry can be fetched and that the STH is indeed the result of making a tree from all fetched entries.


A TLS client (Section 8.1) can audit by verifying an SCT against any STH dated after the SCT timestamp + the Maximum Merge Delay by requesting a Merkle inclusion proof (Section 5.4). It can also verify that the SCT corresponds to the server certificate it arrived with (i.e., the log entry is that certificate or is a precertificate corresponding to that certificate).


Checking of the consistency of the log view presented to all entities is more difficult to perform because it requires a way to share log responses among a set of CT-using entities and is discussed in Section 11.3.


9. Algorithm Agility
9. アルゴリズム敏捷性

It is not possible for a log to change either of its algorithms part way through its lifetime:


Signature algorithm: SCT signatures must remain valid so signature algorithms can only be added, not removed.


Hash algorithm: A log would have to support the old and new hash algorithms to allow backwards compatibility with clients that are not aware of a hash algorithm change.


Allowing multiple signature or hash algorithms for a log would require that all data structures support it and would significantly complicate client implementation, which is why it is not supported by this document.


If it should become necessary to deprecate an algorithm used by a live log, then the log MUST be frozen, as specified in Section 4.13, and a new log SHOULD be started. Certificates in the frozen log that have not yet expired and require new SCTs SHOULD be submitted to the new log and the SCTs from that log used instead.


10. IANA Considerations
10. IANAの考慮事項

The assignment policy criteria mentioned in this section refer to the policies outlined in [RFC8126].


10.1. Additions to Existing Registries
10.1. 既存のレジストリへの追加

This subsection defines additions to existing registries.


10.1.1. New Entry to the TLS ExtensionType Registry
10.1.1. TLS ExtensionTypeレジストリへの新しいエントリ

IANA has added the following entry to the "TLS ExtensionType Values" registry defined in [RFC8446], with an assigned Value:

IANAは、[RFC8446]で定義されている「TLS ExtenctType値」レジストリを割り当てられた値で追加しました。

   |Value| Extension Name    |TLS| DTLS-Only | Recommended | Reference |
   |     |                   |1.3|           |             |           |
   |52   | transparency_info |CH,| N         | Y           | RFC 9162  |
   |     |                   |CR,|           |             |           |
   |     |                   |CT |           |             |           |

Table 7


10.1.2. URN Sub-namespace for TRANS (urn:ietf:params:trans)
10.1.2. トランスのURNサブネームスペース(URN:IETF:PARAMS:トランス)

IANA has added a new entry in the "IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol Parameter Identifiers" registry, following the template in [RFC3553]:

IANAは、[RFC3553]のテンプレートに従って、[登録プロトコルパラメータ識別子の場合はIETF URNサブネームスペース]レジストリに新しいエントリを追加しました。

Registry name: trans Specification: RFC 9162 Repository: <> Index value: No transformation needed.

レジストリ名:トランス仕様:RFC 9162リポジトリ:<>インデックス値:No Transformationが必要です。

10.2. New CT-Related Registries
10.2. 新しいCT関連のレジストリ
   IANA has added a new protocol registry, "Public Notary Transparency",
   to the list that appears at <>

The rest of this section defines the subregistries that have been created within the new "Public Notary Transparency" registry.


10.2.1. Hash Algorithms
10.2.1. ハッシュアルゴリズム

IANA has established a registry of hash algorithm values, named "Hash Algorithms", with the following registration procedures:


                  | Range     | Registration Procedures |
                  | 0x00-0xDF | Specification Required  |
                  | 0xE0-0xEF | Experimental Use        |
                  | 0xF0-0xFF | Private Use             |

Table 8


The "Hash Algorithms" registry initially consists of:


    | Value  | Hash Algorithm   | OID                    | Reference |
    | 0x00   | SHA-256          | 2.16.840. | [RFC6234] |
    | 0x01 - | Unassigned       |                        | RFC 9162  |
    | 0xDF   |                  |                        |           |
    | 0xE0 - | Reserved for     |                        | RFC 9162  |
    | 0xEF   | Experimental Use |                        |           |
    | 0xF0 - | Reserved for     |                        | RFC 9162  |
    | 0xFF   | Private Use      |                        |           |

Table 9


The designated expert(s) should ensure that the proposed algorithm has a public specification and is suitable for use as a cryptographic hash algorithm with no known preimage or collision attacks. These attacks can damage the integrity of the log.


10.2.2. Signature Algorithms
10.2.2. 署名アルゴリズム

IANA has established a registry of signature algorithm values, named "Signature Algorithms".


The following notes have been added to the registry:


   |  *Note:*
   |     This is a subset of the "TLS SignatureScheme" registry, limited
   |     to those algorithms that are appropriate for CT.  A major
   |     advantage of this is leveraging the expertise of the TLS
   |     Working Group and its designated expert(s).
   |  *Note:*
   |     The value 0x0403 appears twice.  While this may be confusing,
   |     it is okay because the verification process is the same for
   |     both algorithms, and the choice of which to use when generating
   |     a signature is purely internal to the log server.

The "Signature Algorithms" registry has the following registration procedures:


                | Range         | Registration Procedures |
                | 0x0000-0x0807 | Specification Required  |
                | 0x0808-0xFDFF | Expert Review           |
                | 0xFE00-0xFEFF | Experimental Use        |
                | 0xFF00-0xFFFF | Private Use             |

Table 10


The "Signature Algorithms" registry initially consists of:


   | SignatureScheme Value  | Signature Algorithm       | Reference   |
   | 0x0000 - 0x0402        | Unassigned                |             |
   | ecdsa_secp256r1_sha256 | ECDSA (NIST P-256) with   | [FIPS186-4] |
   | (0x0403)               | SHA-256                   |             |
   | ecdsa_secp256r1_sha256 | Deterministic ECDSA (NIST | [RFC6979]   |
   | (0x0403)               | P-256) with HMAC-SHA256   |             |
   | 0x0404 - 0x0806        | Unassigned                |             |
   | ed25519 (0x0807)       | Ed25519 (PureEdDSA with   | [RFC8032]   |
   |                        | the edwards25519 curve)   |             |
   | 0x0808 - 0xFDFF        | Unassigned                |             |
   | 0xFE00 - 0xFEFF        | Reserved for Experimental | RFC 9162    |
   |                        | Use                       |             |
   | 0xFF00 - 0xFFFF        | Reserved for Private Use  | RFC 9162    |

Table 11


The designated expert(s) should ensure that the proposed algorithm has a public specification, has a value assigned to it in the "TLS SignatureScheme" registry (which was established by [RFC8446]), and is suitable for use as a cryptographic signature algorithm.

指定されたエキスパートは、提案されたアルゴリズムが公開仕様を有することを確実にし、「TLS SignatureScheme」レジストリ(RFC8446]によって確立された)で割り当てられ、暗号署名アルゴリズムとしての使用に適していることを確認するべきである。。

10.2.3. VersionedTransTypes
10.2.3. VersionedTranStypes

IANA has established a registry of VersionedTransType values, named "VersionedTransTypes".

IANAは "VersionedTranStypes"という名前のVersionedTranStype値のレジストリを確立しました。

The following note has been added:


   |  *Note:*
   |     The range 0x0000..0x00FF is reserved so that v1 SCTs are
   |     distinguishable from v2 SCTs and other TransItem structures.

The registration procedures for the "VersionedTransTypes" registry are the following:


                | Range         | Registration Procedures |
                | 0x0100-0xDFFF | Specification Required  |
                | 0xE000-0xEFFF | Experimental Use        |
                | 0xF000-0xFFFF | Private Use             |

Table 12


The "VersionedTransTypes" registry initially consists of:


      | Value           | Type and Version              | Reference |
      | 0x0000 - 0x00FF | Reserved                      | [RFC6962] |
      | 0x0100          | x509_entry_v2                 | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0101          | precert_entry_v2              | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0102          | x509_sct_v2                   | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0103          | precert_sct_v2                | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0104          | signed_tree_head_v2           | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0105          | consistency_proof_v2          | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0106          | inclusion_proof_v2            | RFC 9162  |
      | 0x0107 - 0xDFFF | Unassigned                    |           |
      | 0xE000 - 0xEFFF | Reserved for Experimental Use | RFC 9162  |
      | 0xF000 - 0xFFFF | Reserved for Private Use      | RFC 9162  |

Table 13


The designated expert(s) should review the public specification to ensure that it is detailed enough to ensure implementation interoperability.


10.2.4. Log Artifact Extensions
10.2.4. Artifact Extensionsをログに記録します

IANA has established a registry of ExtensionType values, named "Log Artifact Extensions".

IANAは、「Log Artifact Extensions」という名前のExtensionType値のレジストリを確立しました。

The registration procedures for the "Log Artifact Extensions" registry are the following:

「Log Artifact Extensions」レジストリの登録手順は次のとおりです。

                | Range         | Registration Procedures |
                | 0x0000-0xDFFF | Specification Required  |
                | 0xE000-0xEFFF | Experimental Use        |
                | 0xF000-0xFFFF | Private Use             |

Table 14


The "Log Artifact Extensions" registry initially consists of:

最初は "Log Artifact Extensions"レジストリは次のものです。

   | ExtensionType   | Status                        | Use | Reference |
   | 0x0000 - 0xDFFF | Unassigned                    | n/a |           |
   | 0xE000 - 0xEFFF | Reserved for                  | n/a | RFC 9162  |
   |                 | Experimental Use              |     |           |
   | 0xF000 - 0xFFFF | Reserved for                  | n/a | RFC 9162  |
   |                 | Private Use                   |     |           |

Table 15


The "Use" column should contain one or both of the following values:


* "SCT", for extensions specified for use in Signed Certificate Timestamps.

* 「SCT」、署名付き証明書タイムスタンプでの使用に指定された拡張機能。

* "STH", for extensions specified for use in Signed Tree Heads.

* 署名付きツリーヘッドでの使用に指定された拡張機能の「STH」。

The designated expert(s) should review the public specification to ensure that it is detailed enough to ensure implementation interoperability. They should also verify that the extension is appropriate to the contexts in which it is specified to be used (SCT, STH, or both).


10.2.5. Log IDs
10.2.5. ログIDS

IANA has established a registry of Log IDs, named "Log IDs".


The registry's registration procedure is First Come First Served.


The "Log IDs" registry initially consists of:


       | Log ID         | Log Base URL | Log Operator | Reference |
       | - | Unassigned   | Unassigned   |           |
       |  |              |              |           |
       | - | Unassigned   | Unassigned   |           |
       |*   |              |              |           |

Table 16


The following notes have been added to the registry:


   |  *Note:*
   |     All OIDs in the range from to have
   |     been set aside for Log IDs.  This is a limited resource of
   |     8,192 OIDs, each of which has an encoded length of 4 octets.
   |  *Note:*
   |     The arc has also been set aside for Log IDs.  This
   |     is an unlimited resource, but only the 128 OIDs from
   | to have an encoded length of only 4
   |     octets.

Each application for the allocation of a Log ID MUST be accompanied by:


* the Log's Base URL (see Section 4.1) and

* ログの基本URL(セクション4.1を参照)

* the Log Operator's contact details.

* ログオペレーターの連絡先の詳細。

IANA is asked to reject any request to update a Log ID or Log Base URL in this registry because these fields are immutable (see Section 4.1).


IANA is asked to accept requests from log operators to update their contact details in this registry.


Since log operators can choose to not use this registry (see Section 4.4), it is not expected to be a global directory of all logs.


10.2.6. Error Types
10.2.6. エラータイプ

IANA has created a new registry for errors, the "Error Types" registry.


The registration procedure for this registry is Specification Required.


This registry has the following three fields:


                    | Field Name | Type   | Reference |
                    | Identifier | string | RFC 9162  |
                    | Meaning    | string | RFC 9162  |
                    | Reference  | string | RFC 9162  |

Table 17


The initial values of the "Error Types" registry, which are taken from the text in Section 5, are as follows:


   | Identifier        | Meaning                           | Reference |
   | malformed         | The request could not be          | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | parsed.                           |           |
   | badSubmission     | submission is neither a           | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | valid certificate nor a           |           |
   |                   | valid precertificate.             |           |
   | badType           | type is neither 1 nor 2.          | RFC 9162  |
   | badChain          | The first element of chain        | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | is not the certifier of the       |           |
   |                   | submission, or the second         |           |
   |                   | element does not certify the      |           |
   |                   | first, etc.                       |           |
   | badCertificate    | One or more certificates in       | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | chain are not valid (e.g.,        |           |
   |                   | not properly encoded).            |           |
   | unknownAnchor     | The last element of chain         | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | (or, if chain is an empty         |           |
   |                   | array, the submission) is         |           |
   |                   | not, nor is it certified by,      |           |
   |                   | an accepted trust anchor.         |           |
   | shutdown          | The log is no longer              | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | accepting submissions.            |           |
   | firstUnknown      | first is before the latest        | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | known STH but is not from an      |           |
   |                   | existing STH.                     |           |
   | secondUnknown     | second is before the latest       | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | known STH but is not from an      |           |
   |                   | existing STH.                     |           |
   | secondBeforeFirst | second is smaller than            | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | first.                            |           |
   | hashUnknown       | hash is not the hash of a         | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | known leaf (may be caused by      |           |
   |                   | skew or by a known                |           |
   |                   | certificate not yet merged).      |           |
   | treeSizeUnknown   | hash is before the latest         | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | known STH but is not from an      |           |
   |                   | existing STH.                     |           |
   | startUnknown      | start is greater than the         | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | number of entries in the          |           |
   |                   | Merkle Tree.                      |           |
   | endBeforeStart    | start cannot be greater than      | RFC 9162  |
   |                   | end.                              |           |

Table 18


10.3. OID Assignment
10.3. OIDの割り当て

IANA has assigned an object identifier from the "SMI Security for PKIX Module Identifier" registry to identify the ASN.1 module in Appendix B of this document.


            | Decimal | Description             | References |
            | 102     | id-mod-public-notary-v2 | RFC 9162   |

Table 19


11. Security Considerations
11. セキュリティに関する考慮事項

With CAs, logs, and servers performing the actions described here, TLS clients can use logs and signed timestamps to reduce the likelihood that they will accept misissued certificates. If a server presents a valid signed timestamp for a certificate, then the client knows that a log has committed to publishing the certificate. From this, the client knows that monitors acting for the subject of the certificate have had some time to notice the misissuance and take some action, such as asking a CA to revoke a misissued certificate. A signed timestamp does not guarantee this, though, since appropriate monitors might not have checked the logs or the CA might have refused to revoke the certificate.


In addition, if TLS clients will not accept unlogged certificates, then site owners will have a greater incentive to submit certificates to logs, possibly with the assistance of their CA, increasing the overall transparency of the system.


11.1. Misissued Certificates
11.1. 勝者の証明書

Misissued certificates that have not been publicly logged, and thus do not have a valid SCT, are not considered compliant. Misissued certificates that do have an SCT from a log will appear in that public log within the Maximum Merge Delay, assuming the log is operating correctly. Since a log is allowed to serve an STH of any age up to the MMD, the maximum period of time during which a misissued certificate can be used without being available for audit is twice the MMD.


11.2. Detection of Misissue
11.2. ミスキューの検出

The logs do not themselves detect misissued certificates; they rely instead on interested parties, such as domain owners, to monitor them and take corrective action when a misissue is detected.


11.3. Misbehaving Logs
11.3. 誤動作の丸太

A log can misbehave in several ways. Examples include the following: failing to incorporate a certificate with an SCT in the Merkle Tree within the MMD; presenting different, conflicting views of the Merkle Tree at different times and/or to different parties; issuing STHs too frequently; mutating the signature of a logged certificate; and failing to present a chain containing the certifier of a logged certificate.


Violation of the MMD contract is detected by log clients requesting a Merkle inclusion proof (Section 5.4) for each observed SCT. These checks can be asynchronous and need only be done once per certificate. However, note that there may be privacy concerns (see Section 8.1.4).


Violation of the append-only property or the STH issuance rate limit can be detected by multiple clients comparing their instances of the STHs. This technique, known as "gossip", is an active area of research and not defined here. Proof of misbehavior in such cases would be either a series of STHs that were issued too closely together, proving violation of the STH issuance rate limit, or an STH with a root hash that does not match the one calculated from a copy of the log, proving violation of the append-only property.


Clients that report back SCTs can be tracked or traced if a log produces multiple STHs or SCTs with the same timestamp and data but different signatures. Logs SHOULD mitigate this risk by either:


* using deterministic signature schemes or

* 決定論的署名方式を使用するOR

* producing no more than one SCT for each distinct submission and no more than one STH for each distinct tree_size. Each of these SCTs and STHs can be stored by the log and served to other clients that submit the same certificate or request the same STH.

* 明確な提出ごとに複数のSCTを生産し、それぞれの明確なtree_sizeごとに1つ以下のSTHを作成します。これらのSCTとSTHのそれぞれは、ログによって保存され、同じ証明書を送信するか、同じSTHを要求する他のクライアントにサービスを提供できます。

11.4. Multiple SCTs
11.4. 複数のSCT

By requiring TLS servers to offer multiple SCTs, each from a different log, TLS clients reduce the effectiveness of an attack where a CA and a log collude (see Section 6.2).


11.5. Leakage of DNS Information
11.5. DNS情報の漏洩

Malicious monitors can use logs to learn about the existence of domain names that might not otherwise be easy to discover. Some subdomain labels may reveal information about the service and software for which the subdomain is used, which in turn might facilitate targeted attacks.


12. References
12. 参考文献
12.1. Normative References
12.1. 引用文献

[FIPS186-4] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-4, July 2013, < NIST.FIPS.186-4.pdf>.

[FIPS186-4]国立標準技術研究所、「デジタルシグネチャスタンダード(DSS)」、FIPS PUB 186-4、2013年7月、< nist.fips.186-4.pdf>。

[HTML401] Raggett, D., Le Hors, A., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01 Specification", W3C Recommendation SPSD-html401-20180327, March 2018, <>.

[HTML401] Raggett、D.、Le hars、A.、I. Jacobs、 "HTML 4.01仕様"、W3C勧告SPSD-HTML401-20180327、2018年3月、< SPSD-HTML401-20180327>。

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <>.

[RFC2119] BRADNER、S、「RFCで使用するためのキーワード」、BCP 14、RFC 2119、DOI 10.17487 / RFC2119、1997年3月、<>。

[RFC3553] Mealling, M., Masinter, L., Hardie, T., and G. Klyne, "An IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol Parameters", BCP 73, RFC 3553, DOI 10.17487/RFC3553, June 2003, <>.

[RFC3553] Mealling、M.、Masinter、L.、Hardie、T.、およびG。Klyne、「登録プロトコルパラメータのIETF URNサブネームスペース」、BCP 73、RFC 3553、DOI 10.17487 / RFC3553、2003年6月、<>。

[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005, <>.

[RFC3986] Berners-Lee、T.、Field、R.、およびL.Masinter、 "Uniform Resource Identifier(URI):汎用構文"、STD 66、RFC 3986、DOI 10.17487 / RFC3986、2005年1月、<>。

[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006, <>.

[RFC4648] Josefsson、S。、「Base16、Base32、およびBase64データエンコーディング」、RFC 4648、DOI 10.17487 / RFC4648、2006年10月、<>。

[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008, <>.

[RFC5246] Dierks、T.およびE. Rescorla、「トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLS)プロトコルバージョン1.2」、RFC 5246、DOI 10.17487 / RFC5246、2008年8月、< RFC5246>。

[RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008, <>.

[RFC5280] Cooper、D.、Santesson、S.、Farrell、S.、Boeyen、S.、Housley、R.、およびW.Polk、 "Internet X.509公開鍵インフラストラクチャ証明書および証明書失効リスト(CRL)プロファイル「、RFC 5280、DOI 10.17487 / RFC5280、2008年5月、<>。

[RFC5652] Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70, RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009, <>.

[RFC5652] Housley、R.、 "Cryptographic Message Syntax(CMS)"、STD 70、RFC 5652、DOI 10.17487 / RFC5652、2009年9月、<>。

[RFC6066] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Extensions: Extension Definitions", RFC 6066, DOI 10.17487/RFC6066, January 2011, <>.

[RFC6066]イーストレイク3RD、D.、「トランスポートレイヤセキュリティ(TLS)拡張:拡張定義」、RFC 6066、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6066、2011年1月、<>。

[RFC6234] Eastlake 3rd, D. and T. Hansen, "US Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA and SHA-based HMAC and HKDF)", RFC 6234, DOI 10.17487/RFC6234, May 2011, <>.

[RFC6234]イーストレイク3RD、D.およびT.ハンセン、「米国セキュアハッシュアルゴリズム(SHAおよびSHAベースのHMACおよびHKDF)」、RFC 6234、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6234、2011年5月、<https:///>。

[RFC6960] Santesson, S., Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A., Galperin, S., and C. Adams, "X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP", RFC 6960, DOI 10.17487/RFC6960, June 2013, <>.

[RFC6960] Santesson、S.、Myers、M.、Ankney、R.、Malpani、A.、Galparin、S.、およびC. ADAMS、「インターネット公開鍵インフラストラクチャオンライン証明書ステータスプロトコル - OCSP」、RFC6960、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6960、2013年6月、<>。

[RFC6979] Pornin, T., "Deterministic Usage of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)", RFC 6979, DOI 10.17487/RFC6979, August 2013, <>.

[RFC6979] PornIn、T.、「デジタル署名アルゴリズム(DSA)および楕円曲線デジタル署名アルゴリズム(ECDSA)」、RFC 6979、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6979、<https:///www.rfc-の決定>。

[RFC7231] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014, <>.

[RFC7231] Fielding、R.、Ed。J.Reschke、ED。、「Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP / 1.1):セマンティクスとコンテンツ」、RFC 7231、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7231、2014年6月、<>。

[RFC7633] Hallam-Baker, P., "X.509v3 Transport Layer Security (TLS) Feature Extension", RFC 7633, DOI 10.17487/RFC7633, October 2015, <>.

[RFC7633]ハラムベイカー、P.、 "X.509V3トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLS)機能拡張"、RFC 7633、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7633、2015年10月、<>。

[RFC7807] Nottingham, M. and E. Wilde, "Problem Details for HTTP APIs", RFC 7807, DOI 10.17487/RFC7807, March 2016, <>.

[RFC7807]ノッティンガム、M.およびE.ワイルド、「HTTP APIの問題詳細」、RFC 7807、DOI 10.17487 / RFC7807、2016年3月、<>。

[RFC8032] Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032, DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017, <>.

[RFC8032] Josefsson、S.およびI. Liusvaara、 "Edward-Curve Digital Signatutal Algorithm(EDDSA)"、RFC 8032、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8032、2017年1月、<>。

[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017, <>.

[RFC8174] Leiba、B.、RFC 2119キーワードの「大文字の曖昧さ」、BCP 14、RFC 8174、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8174、2017年5月、<>。

[RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259, DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017, <>.

[RFC8259] Bray、T.、「JavaScriptオブジェクト表記(JSON)データ交換フォーマット」、STD 90、RFC 8259、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8259、2017年12月、< info / rfc8259>。

[RFC8391] Huelsing, A., Butin, D., Gazdag, S., Rijneveld, J., and A. Mohaisen, "XMSS: eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme", RFC 8391, DOI 10.17487/RFC8391, May 2018, <>.

[RFC8391] Hueling、A.、Butin、D.、Gazdag、S.、Rijneveld、J.、A.Mohaisen、「XMSS:拡張メルクルシスキーム」、RFC 8391、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8391、2018年5月、<HTTPS//>。

[RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, <>.

[RFC8446] RESCORLA、E。、「トランスポート層セキュリティ(TLS)プロトコルバージョン1.3」、RFC 8446、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8446、<>。

[UNIXTIME] IEEE, "The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7", Section 4.16 Seconds Since the Epoch, IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, 2016, < onlinepubs/9699919799.2016edition/basedefs/ V1_chap04.html#tag_04_16>.

[UNIXTIME] Epoch、IEEE STD 1003.1-2008,2016、< -lownpubs / 9699919799.2016EDITION / BASESSEFS / V1_CHAP04.2016。HTML#TAG_04_16>。

[X690] ITU-T, "Information technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation X.690, ISO/IEC 8825-1, February 2021.

[x690] ITU-T、「情報技術 - ASN.1符号化規則:基本符号化規則(BER)、正規符号化規則(CER)および識別符号化規則(DER)」、ITU-T勧告X.690、ISO/ IEC 8825-1、2021年2月。

12.2. Informative References
12.2. 参考引用

[CABBR] CA/Browser Forum, "Baseline Requirements for the Issuance and Management of Publicly-Trusted Certificates", Version 1.7.3, October 2020, <>.

[CABBR] CA /ブラウザフォーラム、「公開証明書の発行と管理のためのベースライン要件」、バージョン1.7.3、2020年10月、<>。

[Chromium.Log.Policy] The Chromium Projects, "Chromium Certificate Transparency Log Policy", < log_policy.html>.

[chromium.log.policy]クロムプロジェクト、 "Chromium Certificate透明ログポリシー"、< log_policy.html>。

[Chromium.Policy] The Chromium Projects, "Chromium Certificate Transparency Policy", < ct_policy.html>.

[Chromium.Policy] Chromiumプロジェクト、「Chromium Certificate透明度ポリシー」、<>。

[CrosbyWallach] Crosby, S. and D. Wallach, "Efficient Data Structures for Tamper-Evident Logging", Proceedings of the 18th USENIX Security Symposium, Montreal, August 2009, < crosby.pdf>.

[CrosbyWallach] Crosby、S.およびD. Wallach、「明らかなロギングのための効率的なデータ構造」、18番目のUsenix Security Symposium、Montreal、Montreal、2009年8月、< tech / full_papers / crosby.pdf>。

[JSON.Metadata] The Chromium Projects, "Chromium Log Metadata JSON Schema", < log_list_schema.json>.

[JSON.Metadata] Chromiumプロジェクト「Chromium Log Metadata JSONスキーマ」、< log_list_schema.json>。

[RFC5912] Hoffman, P. and J. Schaad, "New ASN.1 Modules for the Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509 (PKIX)", RFC 5912, DOI 10.17487/RFC5912, June 2010, <>.

[RFC5912] Hoffman、P.およびJ.Schaad、「X.509(PKIX)」、RFC 5912、DOI 10.17487 / RFC5912、2010年6月、<https:// www。>。

[RFC6268] Schaad, J. and S. Turner, "Additional New ASN.1 Modules for the Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) and the Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509 (PKIX)", RFC 6268, DOI 10.17487/RFC6268, July 2011, <>.

[RFC6268] Schaad、J.およびS. Turner、「暗号メッセージ構文(CMS)およびX.509(PKIX)を使用した公開鍵インフラストラクチャ(CMS)、RFC 6268、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6268、7月2011年、<>。

[RFC6962] Laurie, B., Langley, A., and E. Kasper, "Certificate Transparency", RFC 6962, DOI 10.17487/RFC6962, June 2013, <>.

[RFC6962] Laurie、B.、Langley、A.、E. Kasper、 "証明書透明度"、RFC 6962、DOI 10.17487 / RFC6962、2013年6月、<>。

[RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017, <>.

[RFC8126]コットン、M.、Leiba、B.およびT.Narten、「RFCSのIANAに関する考察のためのガイドライン」、BCP 26、RFC 8126、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8126、2017年6月、<https:// / info / rfc8126>。

[RFC8820] Nottingham, M., "URI Design and Ownership", BCP 190, RFC 8820, DOI 10.17487/RFC8820, June 2020, <>.

[RFC8820]ノッティンガム、M。、「URI設計と所有権」、BCP 190、RFC 8820、DOI 10.17487 / RFC8820、2020年6月、<>。

[X.680] ITU-T, "Information technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation", ITU-T Recommendation X.680, February 2021.

[X.680] ITU-T、「情報技術 - 抽象構文表記1(ASN.1):基本表記の仕様」、ITU-T勧告X.680、2021年2月。

Appendix A. Supporting v1 and v2 Simultaneously (Informative)

付録A. v1とv2を同時にサポートする(有益性)

Certificate Transparency logs have to be either v1 (conforming to [RFC6962]) or v2 (conforming to this document), as the data structures are incompatible, and so a v2 log could not issue a valid v1 SCT.

データ構造が互換性がないため、証明書の透明度ログは、V1(RFC6962]に準拠している)またはV2(この文書に準拠しています)、データ構造は互換性がないため、V2ログは有効なV1 SCTを発行できませんでした。

CT clients, however, can support v1 and v2 SCTs for the same certificate simultaneously, as v1 SCTs are delivered in different TLS, X.509, and OCSP extensions than v2 SCTs.

ただし、CTクライアントは、V1 SCTSがV2 SCTよりも異なるTLS、X.509、およびOCSP拡張機能で配信されるため、同じ証明書のV1とV2のSCTを同時にサポートできます。

v1 and v2 SCTs for X.509 certificates can be validated independently. For precertificates, v2 SCTs should be embedded in the TBSCertificate before submission of the TBSCertificate (inside a v1 precertificate, as described in Section 3.1 of [RFC6962]) to a v1 log so that TLS clients conforming to [RFC6962] but not this document are oblivious to the embedded v2 SCTs. An issuer can follow these steps to produce an X.509 certificate with embedded v1 and v2 SCTs:

X.509証明書のV1およびV2 SCTは独立して検証できます。Prectificatesの場合、V2 SCTは、TLSクライアントが[RFC6962]に準拠しているが、TLSクライアントが[RFC6962]に準拠しているように、TBSCERTIFICATE([RFC6962]のセクション3.1のセクション3.1で説明されているように、v1の事故の内側)をv1ログに提出する前にTBSCertificateに埋め込む必要があります。埋め込まれたV2 SCTを忘れていない。発行者は、埋め込みV1およびV2 SCTを備えたX.509証明書を作成するためにこれらのステップを続けることができます。

* Create a CMS precertificate, as described in Section 3.2, and submit it to v2 logs.

* セクション3.2で説明されているように、CMS Prectificateを作成し、それをV2ログに送信します。

* Embed the obtained v2 SCTs in the TBSCertificate, as described in Section 7.1.2.

* セクション7.1.2に記載されているように、取得したV2 SCTをTBSCertificateに埋め込む。

* Use that TBSCertificate to create a v1 precertificate, as described in Section 3.1 of [RFC6962], and submit it to v1 logs.

* [RFC6962]のセクション3.1で説明されているように、そのTBSCertificateを使用して、V1ログに送信します。

* Embed the v1 SCTs in the TBSCertificate, as described in Section 3.3 of [RFC6962].

* [RFC6962]のセクション3.3に記載されているように、TBSCERTICATEにV1 SCTを埋め込む。

* Sign that TBSCertificate (which now contains v1 and v2 SCTs) to issue the final X.509 certificate.

* 最後のX.509証明書を発行するには、TBSCertificate(V1とV2 SCT)を含んでいるように署名します。

Appendix B. An ASN.1 Module (Informative)

付録B. ASN.1モジュール(有益)

The following ASN.1 [X.680] module may be useful to implementors. This module references [RFC5912] and [RFC6268].

次のASN.1 [X.680]モジュールは実装者にとって有用であるかもしれません。このモジュールは[RFC5912]と[RFC6268]を参照しています。

    -- { id-mod-public-notary-v2 from above, in
           iso(1) identified-organization(3) ...
       form }


- すべてのエクスポート -

     FROM PKIX-CommonTypes-2009 -- RFC 5912
       { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
         security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
         id-mod-pkixCommon-02(57) }
     FROM CryptographicMessageSyntax-2010  -- RFC 6268
       { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1)
         pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) id-mod-cms-2009(58) }
     FROM PKIX1Explicit-2009 -- RFC 5912
       { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
         security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
         id-mod-pkix1-explicit-02(51) }

-- -- Section 3.2. Precertificates --

- セクション3.2。予備品 -

   ct-tbsCertificate CONTENT-TYPE ::= {
     TYPE TBSCertificate
     IDENTIFIED BY id-ct-tbsCertificate }
   id-ct-tbsCertificate OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { 1 3 101 78 }

-- -- Section 7.1. Transparency Information X.509v3 Extension --

- セクション7.1。透明度情報X.509v3拡張子 -

   ext-transparencyInfo EXTENSION ::= {
      SYNTAX TransparencyInformationSyntax
      IDENTIFIED BY id-ce-transparencyInfo
   id-ce-transparencyInfo OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { 1 3 101 75 }
   TransparencyInformationSyntax ::= OCTET STRING

-- -- Section 7.1.1. OCSP Response Extension --

- セクション7.1.1。OCSP応答拡張 -

   ext-ocsp-transparencyInfo EXTENSION ::= {
      SYNTAX TransparencyInformationSyntax
      IDENTIFIED BY id-pkix-ocsp-transparencyInfo
   id-pkix-ocsp-transparencyInfo OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=

-- -- Section 8.1.2. Reconstructing the TBSCertificate --

- セクション8.1.2。TBSCertificateを再構築する -

   ext-embeddedSCT-CTv1 EXTENSION ::= {
      SYNTAX SignedCertificateTimestampList
      IDENTIFIED BY id-ce-embeddedSCT-CTv1
   id-ce-embeddedSCT-CTv1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {
      1 3 6 1 4 1 11129 2 4 2 }
   SignedCertificateTimestampList ::= OCTET STRING





The authors would like to thank Erwann Abelea, Robin Alden, Andrew Ayer, Richard Barnes, Al Cutter, David Drysdale, Francis Dupont, Adam Eijdenberg, Stephen Farrell, Daniel Kahn Gillmor, Paul Hadfield, Brad Hill, Jeff Hodges, Paul Hoffman, Jeffrey Hutzelman, Kat Joyce, Emilia Kasper, Stephen Kent, Adam Langley, SM, Alexey Melnikov, Linus Nordberg, Chris Palmer, Trevor Perrin, Pierre Phaneuf, Eric Rescorla, Rich Salz, Melinda Shore, Ryan Sleevi, Martin Smith, Carl Wallace, and Paul Wouters for their valuable contributions.

著者らは、Erwann Abelea、Richard Barnes、Andrew Ayer、Richard Barnes、Al Cutter、David Drysdale、Adam Eijdenberg、Stephen Farrell、Daniel Kahn Gillmor、Paul Hadfield、Paul Hoffman、JeffreyHutzelman、Kat Joyce、Emilia Kasper、Stephen Kent、Adam Langley、SM、Alexey Melnikov、Linus Nordberg、Chris Palmer、Trevor Perrin、Pierre Phaneuf、Eric Rescorla、Rich Salz、Melinda Shore、Ryan Sleevi、Martin Smith、Carl Wallace、彼らの貴重な貢献のためにポールウォートター。

A big thank you to Symantec for kindly donating the OIDs from the 1.3.101 arc that are used in this document.

このドキュメントで使用されている1.3.101 ARCからOIDを親切に寄付するための大きな感謝を感謝します。

Authors' Addresses


Ben Laurie Google UK Ltd.

ベン・ローリーGoogle UK Ltd。


Eran Messeri Google UK Ltd.

Eran Messeri Google UK Ltd.


Rob Stradling Sectigo Ltd.

Rob Stradling Sectigo Ltd.