晴耕雨読

working in the fields on fine days and reading books on rainy days

禁酒するために読むべき論文

ここで取り上げるのは、適量飲酒という概念をぶち壊してくれるようなことを書いてくれている論文・記事です。 飲酒を推奨する論文は酒造メーカーから多額の研究資金が流れているから信用してはいけない(という偏見)。


お酒を飲むと海馬が縮む

Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study (2017)

What this study adds

  • Compared with abstinence, moderate alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of adverse brain outcomes and steeper cognitive decline in lexical fluency
  • The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable, which has not been previously linked negatively with moderate alcohol use
  • No protective effect was found for small amounts of alcohol over abstinence, and previous reports claiming a protective effect of light drinking might have been subject to confounding by associations between increased alcohol and higher social class or IQ
  • 禁酒者と比較すると、飲酒は脳機能や急激な言語機能の低下と関連している。
  • 海馬は特に脆弱で、これまで飲酒との関連がされていなかった。
  • 禁酒者と比較して、少量の飲酒には保護効果がないことがわかった。

海馬は記憶や認知などを司るため、アルコールをよく摂取する人は、長期的に見れば脳の認知機能が低下しやすい。 適度な飲酒量をキープしていた人も海馬の萎縮は免れない。


お酒を飲むとガンや病気のリスクが上がる

Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (2018)

Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease burden worldwide, accounting for nearly 10% of global deaths among populations aged 15–49 years, and poses dire ramifications for future population health in the absence of policy action today. The widely held view of the health benefits of alcohol needs revising, particularly as improved methods and analyses continue to show how much alcohol use contributes to global death and disability. Our results show that the safest level of drinking is none. This level is in conflict with most health guidelines, which espouse health benefits associated with consuming up to two drinks per day. Alcohol use contributes to health loss from many causes and exacts its toll across the lifespan, particularly among men. Policies that focus on reducing population-level consumption will be most effective in reducing the health loss from alcohol use.

  • 研究結果では飲酒の最も安全なレベルはないことを示している。
  • 飲酒は世界的に見ても病気の危険因子であり、健康の喪失になる。


Jカーブ効果は嘘

Is moderate drinking not so good for you after all? (2016)

“We were able to find every single study ever published linking how much we drink with how long we lived,” said lead researcher Tim Stockwell, the director of the University of Victoria’s Centre for Addictions Research in British Columbia, Canada.

They found what they call an “abstainer bias” in most of the studies, meaning that when researchers compared moderate drinkers with non-drinkers, the non-drinking group often included people who don’t consume alcohol due to other health issues, such as former drinkers who stopped due to poor health. That bias may have made the moderate drinkers – those who downed anywhere from one drink per week to one or two drinks a day – seem healthier by comparison, Stockwell explained.

  • カナダのブリティッシュコロンビア大学の中毒研究センター所長の発言より
  • 健康上の問題で禁酒している人を禁酒者グループに含めているという禁酒者バイアス(abstainer bias)がこれまでの研究に存在することがわかった。

お酒を飲まないと回答した人の中には、健康上の理由でお酒を飲めない人が含まれてしまうため、Jカーブ (お酒を少し飲む人の方が死亡するリスクが低いという結果) ができてしまう。


適量飲酒であっても脳卒中のリスクは高まる

Conventional and genetic evidence on alcohol and vascular disease aetiology: a prospective study of 500 000 men and women in China - The Lancet (2019)

Genetic epidemiology shows that the apparently protective effects of moderate alcohol intake against stroke are largely non-causal. Alcohol consumption uniformly increases blood pressure and stroke risk, and appears in this one study to have little net effect on the risk of myocardial infarction.

  • 遺伝疫学によると、適正飲酒による脳卒中のリスク低下はない
  • アルコールの摂取は血圧と脳卒中のリスクを均一に増加させる


アルコールは幹細胞DNAに不可逆なダメージをもたらす

Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells (2018)

Our study highlights that not being able to process alcohol effectively can lead to an even higher risk of alcohol-related DNA damage and therefore certain cancers.

  • アルコールの処理が効率よくできないと、DNAの損傷リスクが高まり、癌につながる。